6.2.7. Generalised (SQL-like) List Comprehensions¶
Allow use of generalised list (SQL-like) comprehension syntax. This introduces the
Generalised list comprehensions are a further enhancement to the list comprehension syntactic sugar to allow operations such as sorting and grouping which are familiar from SQL. They are fully described in the paper Comprehensive comprehensions: comprehensions with “order by” and “group by”, except that the syntax we use differs slightly from the paper.
The extension is enabled with the extension
Here is an example:
employees = [ ("Simon", "MS", 80) , ("Erik", "MS", 100) , ("Phil", "Ed", 40) , ("Gordon", "Ed", 45) , ("Paul", "Yale", 60) ] output = [ (the dept, sum salary) | (name, dept, salary) <- employees , then group by dept using groupWith , then sortWith by (sum salary) , then take 5 ]
In this example, the list
output would take on the value:
[("Yale", 60), ("Ed", 85), ("MS", 180)]
There are three new keywords:
groupWith are not keywords; they are
ordinary functions that are exported by
There are five new forms of comprehension qualifier, all introduced by
the (existing) keyword
This statement requires that f have the type forall a. [a] -> [a] . You can see an example of its use in the motivating example, as this form is used to apply take 5 .
then f by e
This form is similar to the previous one, but allows you to create a function which will be passed as the first argument to f. As a consequence f must have the type
forall a. (a -> t) -> [a] -> [a]. As you can see from the type, this function lets f “project out” some information from the elements of the list it is transforming.
An example is shown in the opening example, where
sortWithis supplied with a function that lets it find out the
sum salaryfor any item in the list comprehension it transforms.
then group by e using f
This is the most general of the grouping-type statements. In this form, f is required to have type
forall a. (a -> t) -> [a] -> [[a]]. As with the
then f by ecase above, the first argument is a function supplied to f by the compiler which lets it compute e on every element of the list being transformed. However, unlike the non-grouping case, f additionally partitions the list into a number of sublists: this means that at every point after this statement, binders occurring before it in the comprehension refer to lists of possible values, not single values. To help understand this, let’s look at an example:
-- This works similarly to groupWith in GHC.Exts, but doesn't sort its input first groupRuns :: Eq b => (a -> b) -> [a] -> [[a]] groupRuns f = groupBy (\x y -> f x == f y) output = [ (the x, y) | x <- ([1..3] ++ [1..2]) , y <- [4..6] , then group by x using groupRuns ]
This results in the variable
outputtaking on the value below:
[(1, [4, 5, 6]), (2, [4, 5, 6]), (3, [4, 5, 6]), (1, [4, 5, 6]), (2, [4, 5, 6])]
Note that we have used the
thefunction to change the type of x from a list to its original numeric type. The variable y, in contrast, is left unchanged from the list form introduced by the grouping.
then group using f
With this form of the group statement, f is required to simply have the type
forall a. [a] -> [[a]], which will be used to group up the comprehension so far directly. An example of this form is as follows:
output = [ x | y <- [1..5] , x <- "hello" , then group using inits]
This will yield a list containing every prefix of the word “hello” written out 5 times: