bytestring-0.11.4.0: Fast, compact, strict and lazy byte strings with a list interface
Copyright (c) Duncan Coutts 2012-2013 Julian Ospald 2022 BSD-style hasufell@posteo.de stable ghc only Trustworthy Haskell2010

Data.ByteString.Short

Description

A compact representation suitable for storing short byte strings in memory.

In typical use cases it can be imported alongside Data.ByteString, e.g.

import qualified Data.ByteString       as B
import qualified Data.ByteString.Short as B
(ShortByteString, toShort, fromShort)

Other ShortByteString operations clash with Data.ByteString or Prelude functions however, so they should be imported qualified with a different alias e.g.

import qualified Data.ByteString.Short as B.Short
Synopsis

# The ShortByteString type

A compact representation of a Word8 vector.

It has a lower memory overhead than a ByteString and does not contribute to heap fragmentation. It can be converted to or from a ByteString (at the cost of copying the string data). It supports very few other operations.

Constructors

 SBS ByteArray#

#### Instances

Instances details
 Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ByteString.Short.Internal Methodsgfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> ShortByteString -> c ShortByteString Source #gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c ShortByteString Source #dataCast1 :: Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c ShortByteString) Source #dataCast2 :: Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c ShortByteString) Source #gmapT :: (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> ShortByteString -> ShortByteString Source #gmapQl :: (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> ShortByteString -> r Source #gmapQr :: forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> ShortByteString -> r Source #gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> ShortByteString -> [u] Source #gmapQi :: Int -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> ShortByteString -> u Source #gmapM :: Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> ShortByteString -> m ShortByteString Source #gmapMp :: MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> ShortByteString -> m ShortByteString Source #gmapMo :: MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> ShortByteString -> m ShortByteString Source # Source # Beware: fromString truncates multi-byte characters to octets. e.g. "枯朶に烏のとまりけり秋の暮" becomes �6k�nh~�Q��n� Instance detailsDefined in Data.ByteString.Short.Internal Methods Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ByteString.Short.Internal Methods Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ByteString.Short.Internal Methodsstimes :: Integral b => b -> ShortByteString -> ShortByteString Source # Source # Since: bytestring-0.10.12.0 Instance detailsDefined in Data.ByteString.Short.Internal Associated Types Methods Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ByteString.Short.Internal Methods Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ByteString.Short.Internal Methods Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ByteString.Short.Internal Methodsrnf :: ShortByteString -> () Source # Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ByteString.Short.Internal Methods Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ByteString.Short.Internal Methods Source # Since: bytestring-0.11.2.0 Instance detailsDefined in Data.ByteString.Short.Internal Methodslift :: Quote m => ShortByteString -> m Exp Source #liftTyped :: forall (m :: Type -> Type). Quote m => ShortByteString -> Code m ShortByteString Source # Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ByteString.Short.Internal

With GHC, the memory overheads are as follows, expressed in words and in bytes (words are 4 and 8 bytes on 32 or 64bit machines respectively).

• ByteString unshared: 8 words; 32 or 64 bytes.
• ByteString shared substring: 4 words; 16 or 32 bytes.
• ShortByteString: 4 words; 16 or 32 bytes.

For the string data itself, both ShortByteString and ByteString use one byte per element, rounded up to the nearest word. For example, including the overheads, a length 10 ShortByteString would take 16 + 12 = 28 bytes on a 32bit platform and 32 + 16 = 48 bytes on a 64bit platform.

These overheads can all be reduced by 1 word (4 or 8 bytes) when the ShortByteString or ByteString is unpacked into another constructor.

For example:

data ThingId = ThingId {-# UNPACK #-} !Int
{-# UNPACK #-} !ShortByteString

This will take 1 + 1 + 3 words (the ThingId constructor + unpacked Int + unpacked ShortByteString), plus the words for the string data.

## Heap fragmentation

With GHC, the ByteString representation uses pinned memory, meaning it cannot be moved by the GC. This is usually the right thing to do for larger strings, but for small strings using pinned memory can lead to heap fragmentation which wastes space. The ShortByteString type (and the Text type from the text package) use unpinned memory so they do not contribute to heap fragmentation. In addition, with GHC, small unpinned strings are allocated in the same way as normal heap allocations, rather than in a separate pinned area.

# Introducing and eliminating ShortByteStrings

O(1). The empty ShortByteString.

O(1) Convert a Word8 into a ShortByteString

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

pack :: [Word8] -> ShortByteString Source #

O(n). Convert a list into a ShortByteString

O(n). Convert a ShortByteString into a list.

O(n). Convert a ShortByteString into a ByteString.

O(n). Convert a ByteString into a ShortByteString.

This makes a copy, so does not retain the input string.

# Basic interface

snoc :: ShortByteString -> Word8 -> ShortByteString infixl 5 Source #

O(n) Append a byte to the end of a ShortByteString

Note: copies the entire byte array

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

cons :: Word8 -> ShortByteString -> ShortByteString infixr 5 Source #

O(n) cons is analogous to (:) for lists.

Note: copies the entire byte array

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(1) Extract the last element of a ShortByteString, which must be finite and non-empty. An exception will be thrown in the case of an empty ShortByteString.

This is a partial function, consider using unsnoc instead.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) Extract the elements after the head of a ShortByteString, which must be non-empty. An exception will be thrown in the case of an empty ShortByteString.

This is a partial function, consider using uncons instead.

Note: copies the entire byte array

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) Extract the head and tail of a ShortByteString, returning Nothing if it is empty.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(1) Extract the first element of a ShortByteString, which must be non-empty. An exception will be thrown in the case of an empty ShortByteString.

This is a partial function, consider using uncons instead.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) Return all the elements of a ShortByteString except the last one. An exception will be thrown in the case of an empty ShortByteString.

This is a partial function, consider using unsnoc instead.

Note: copies the entire byte array

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) Extract the init and last of a ShortByteString, returning Nothing if it is empty.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(1) Test whether a ShortByteString is empty.

O(1) The length of a ShortByteString.

# Encoding validation

O(n) Check whether a ShortByteString represents valid UTF-8.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

# Transforming ShortByteStrings

O(n) map f xs is the ShortByteString obtained by applying f to each element of xs.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) reverse xs efficiently returns the elements of xs in reverse order.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) The intercalate function takes a ShortByteString and a list of ShortByteStrings and concatenates the list after interspersing the first argument between each element of the list.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

# Reducing ShortByteStrings (folds)

foldl :: (a -> Word8 -> a) -> a -> ShortByteString -> a Source #

foldl, applied to a binary operator, a starting value (typically the left-identity of the operator), and a ShortByteString, reduces the ShortByteString using the binary operator, from left to right.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

foldl' :: (a -> Word8 -> a) -> a -> ShortByteString -> a Source #

foldl' is like foldl, but strict in the accumulator.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

foldl1 :: HasCallStack => (Word8 -> Word8 -> Word8) -> ShortByteString -> Word8 Source #

foldl1 is a variant of foldl that has no starting value argument, and thus must be applied to non-empty ShortByteStrings. An exception will be thrown in the case of an empty ShortByteString.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

foldl1' :: HasCallStack => (Word8 -> Word8 -> Word8) -> ShortByteString -> Word8 Source #

foldl1' is like foldl1, but strict in the accumulator. An exception will be thrown in the case of an empty ShortByteString.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

foldr :: (Word8 -> a -> a) -> a -> ShortByteString -> a Source #

foldr, applied to a binary operator, a starting value (typically the right-identity of the operator), and a ShortByteString, reduces the ShortByteString using the binary operator, from right to left.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

foldr' :: (Word8 -> a -> a) -> a -> ShortByteString -> a Source #

foldr' is like foldr, but strict in the accumulator.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

foldr1 :: HasCallStack => (Word8 -> Word8 -> Word8) -> ShortByteString -> Word8 Source #

foldr1 is a variant of foldr that has no starting value argument, and thus must be applied to non-empty ShortByteStrings An exception will be thrown in the case of an empty ShortByteString.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

foldr1' :: HasCallStack => (Word8 -> Word8 -> Word8) -> ShortByteString -> Word8 Source #

foldr1' is a variant of foldr1, but is strict in the accumulator.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

## Special folds

all :: (Word8 -> Bool) -> ShortByteString -> Bool Source #

O(n) Applied to a predicate and a ShortByteString, all determines if all elements of the ShortByteString satisfy the predicate.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

any :: (Word8 -> Bool) -> ShortByteString -> Bool Source #

O(n) Applied to a predicate and a ShortByteString, any determines if any element of the ShortByteString satisfies the predicate.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

## Generating and unfolding ByteStrings

O(n) replicate n x is a ShortByteString of length n with x the value of every element. The following holds:

replicate w c = unfoldr w (\u -> Just (u,u)) c

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

unfoldr :: (a -> Maybe (Word8, a)) -> a -> ShortByteString Source #

O(n), where n is the length of the result. The unfoldr function is analogous to the List 'unfoldr'. unfoldr builds a ShortByteString from a seed value. The function takes the element and returns Nothing if it is done producing the ShortByteString or returns Just (a,b), in which case, a is the next byte in the string, and b is the seed value for further production.

This function is not efficient/safe. It will build a list of [Word8] and run the generator until it returns Nothing, otherwise recurse infinitely, then finally create a ShortByteString.

If you know the maximum length, consider using unfoldrN.

Examples:

   unfoldr (\x -> if x <= 5 then Just (x, x + 1) else Nothing) 0
== pack [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

unfoldrN :: forall a. Int -> (a -> Maybe (Word8, a)) -> a -> (ShortByteString, Maybe a) Source #

O(n) Like unfoldr, unfoldrN builds a ShortByteString from a seed value. However, the length of the result is limited by the first argument to unfoldrN. This function is more efficient than unfoldr when the maximum length of the result is known.

The following equation relates unfoldrN and unfoldr:

fst (unfoldrN n f s) == take n (unfoldr f s)

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

# Substrings

## Breaking strings

O(n) take n, applied to a ShortByteString xs, returns the prefix of xs of length n, or xs itself if n > length xs.

Note: copies the entire byte array

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) takeEnd n xs is equivalent to drop (length xs - n) xs. Takes n elements from end of bytestring.

>>> takeEnd 3 "abcdefg"
"efg"
>>> takeEnd 0 "abcdefg"
""
>>> takeEnd 4 "abc"
"abc"


Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

Returns the longest (possibly empty) suffix of elements satisfying the predicate.

takeWhileEnd p is equivalent to reverse . takeWhile p . reverse.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

Similar to takeWhile, returns the longest (possibly empty) prefix of elements satisfying the predicate.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements, or empty if n > length xs.

Note: copies the entire byte array

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) dropEnd n xs is equivalent to take (length xs - n) xs. Drops n elements from end of bytestring.

>>> dropEnd 3 "abcdefg"
"abcd"
>>> dropEnd 0 "abcdefg"
"abcdefg"
>>> dropEnd 4 "abc"
""


Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

Similar to dropWhile, drops the longest (possibly empty) prefix of elements satisfying the predicate and returns the remainder.

Note: copies the entire byte array

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

Similar to dropWhileEnd, drops the longest (possibly empty) suffix of elements satisfying the predicate and returns the remainder.

dropWhileEnd p is equivalent to reverse . dropWhile p . reverse.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

Returns the longest (possibly empty) suffix of elements which do not satisfy the predicate and the remainder of the string.

breakEnd p is equivalent to spanEnd (not . p) and to (takeWhileEnd (not . p) &&& dropWhileEnd (not . p)).

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

Similar to break, returns the longest (possibly empty) prefix of elements which do not satisfy the predicate and the remainder of the string.

break p is equivalent to span (not . p) and to (takeWhile (not . p) &&& dropWhile (not . p)).

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

Similar to span, returns the longest (possibly empty) prefix of elements satisfying the predicate and the remainder of the string.

span p is equivalent to break (not . p) and to (takeWhile p &&& dropWhile p).

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

Returns the longest (possibly empty) suffix of elements satisfying the predicate and the remainder of the string.

spanEnd p is equivalent to breakEnd (not . p) and to (takeWhileEnd p &&& dropWhileEnd p).

We have

spanEnd (not . isSpace) "x y z" == ("x y ", "z")

and

spanEnd (not . isSpace) sbs
==
let (x, y) = span (not . isSpace) (reverse sbs) in (reverse y, reverse x)

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) splitAt n sbs is equivalent to (take n sbs, drop n sbs).

Note: copies the substrings

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) Break a ShortByteString into pieces separated by the byte argument, consuming the delimiter. I.e.

split 10  "a\nb\nd\ne" == ["a","b","d","e"]   -- fromEnum '\n' == 10
split 97  "aXaXaXa"    == ["","X","X","X",""] -- fromEnum 'a' == 97
split 120 "x"          == ["",""]             -- fromEnum 'x' == 120
split undefined ""     == []                  -- and not [""]

and

intercalate [c] . split c == id
split == splitWith . (==)

Note: copies the substrings

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

splitWith :: (Word8 -> Bool) -> ShortByteString -> [ShortByteString] Source #

O(n) Splits a ShortByteString into components delimited by separators, where the predicate returns True for a separator element. The resulting components do not contain the separators. Two adjacent separators result in an empty component in the output. eg.

splitWith (==97) "aabbaca" == ["","","bb","c",""] -- fromEnum 'a' == 97
splitWith undefined ""     == []                  -- and not [""]

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) The stripSuffix function takes two ShortByteStrings and returns Just the remainder of the second iff the first is its suffix, and otherwise Nothing.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) The stripPrefix function takes two ShortByteStrings and returns Just the remainder of the second iff the first is its prefix, and otherwise Nothing.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

# Predicates

Check whether one string is a substring of another.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) The isPrefixOf function takes two ShortByteStrings and returns True

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) The isSuffixOf function takes two ShortByteStrings and returns True iff the first is a suffix of the second.

The following holds:

isSuffixOf x y == reverse x isPrefixOf reverse y

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

## Search for arbitrary substrings

Arguments

 :: ShortByteString String to search for -> ShortByteString String to search in -> (ShortByteString, ShortByteString) Head and tail of string broken at substring

Break a string on a substring, returning a pair of the part of the string prior to the match, and the rest of the string.

The following relationships hold:

break (== c) l == breakSubstring (singleton c) l

For example, to tokenise a string, dropping delimiters:

tokenise x y = h : if null t then [] else tokenise x (drop (length x) t)
where (h,t) = breakSubstring x y

To skip to the first occurrence of a string:

snd (breakSubstring x y)

To take the parts of a string before a delimiter:

fst (breakSubstring x y)

Note that calling breakSubstring x does some preprocessing work, so you should avoid unnecessarily duplicating breakSubstring calls with the same pattern.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

# Searching ShortByteStrings

## Searching by equality

O(n) elem is the ShortByteString membership predicate.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

## Searching with a predicate

find :: (Word8 -> Bool) -> ShortByteString -> Maybe Word8 Source #

O(n) The find function takes a predicate and a ShortByteString, and returns the first element in matching the predicate, or Nothing if there is no such element.

find f p = case findIndex f p of Just n -> Just (p ! n) ; _ -> Nothing

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) filter, applied to a predicate and a ShortByteString, returns a ShortByteString containing those characters that satisfy the predicate.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) The partition function takes a predicate a ShortByteString and returns the pair of ShortByteStrings with elements which do and do not satisfy the predicate, respectively; i.e.,

partition p bs == (filter p sbs, filter (not . p) sbs)

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

# Indexing ShortByteStrings

O(1) ShortByteString index (subscript) operator, starting from 0.

This is a partial function, consider using indexMaybe instead.

O(1) ShortByteString index, starting from 0, that returns Just if:

0 <= n < length bs

Since: bytestring-0.11.0.0

O(1) ShortByteString index, starting from 0, that returns Just if:

0 <= n < length bs

Since: bytestring-0.11.0.0

O(n) The elemIndex function returns the index of the first element in the given ShortByteString which is equal to the query element, or Nothing if there is no such element.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

O(n) The elemIndices function extends elemIndex, by returning the indices of all elements equal to the query element, in ascending order.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

count returns the number of times its argument appears in the ShortByteString

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

findIndex :: (Word8 -> Bool) -> ShortByteString -> Maybe Int Source #

O(n) The findIndex function takes a predicate and a ShortByteString and returns the index of the first element in the ShortByteString satisfying the predicate.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

findIndices :: (Word8 -> Bool) -> ShortByteString -> [Int] Source #

O(n) The findIndices function extends findIndex, by returning the indices of all elements satisfying the predicate, in ascending order.

Since: bytestring-0.11.3.0

# Low level conversions

## Packing CStrings and pointers

O(n). Construct a new ShortByteString from a CString. The resulting ShortByteString is an immutable copy of the original CString, and is managed on the Haskell heap. The original CString must be null terminated.

Since: bytestring-0.10.10.0

O(n). Construct a new ShortByteString from a CStringLen. The resulting ShortByteString is an immutable copy of the original CStringLen. The ShortByteString is a normal Haskell value and will be managed on the Haskell heap.

Since: bytestring-0.10.10.0

## Using ShortByteStrings as CStrings

useAsCString :: ShortByteString -> (CString -> IO a) -> IO a Source #

O(n) construction. Use a ShortByteString with a function requiring a null-terminated CString. The CString is a copy and will be freed automatically; it must not be stored or used after the subcomputation finishes.

Since: bytestring-0.10.10.0

useAsCStringLen :: ShortByteString -> (CStringLen -> IO a) -> IO a Source #

O(n) construction. Use a ShortByteString with a function requiring a CStringLen. As for useAsCString this function makes a copy of the original ShortByteString. It must not be stored or used after the subcomputation finishes.

Since: bytestring-0.10.10.0