6.8.3. Constrained class method types¶

ConstrainedClassMethods
¶ Since: 6.8.1 Status: Included in GHC2021
Allows the definition of further constraints on individual class methods.
Haskell 98 prohibits class method types to mention constraints on the class type variable, thus:
class Seq s a where
fromList :: [a] > s a
elem :: Eq a => a > s a > Bool
The type of elem
is illegal in Haskell 98, because it contains the
constraint Eq a
, which constrains only the class type variable (in
this case a
). More precisely, a constraint in a class method signature is rejected if
The constraint mentions at least one type variable. So this is allowed:
class C a where op1 :: HasCallStack => a > a op2 :: (?x::Int) => Int > a
All of the type variables mentioned are bound by the class declaration, and none is locally quantified. Examples:
class C a where op3 :: Eq a => a > a  Rejected: constrains class variable only op4 :: D b => a > b  Accepted: constrains a locallyquantified variable `b` op5 :: D (a,b) => a > b  Accepted: constrains a locallyquantified variable `b`
GHC lifts this restriction with language extension
ConstrainedClassMethods
. The restriction is a pretty stupid one in
the first place, so ConstrainedClassMethods
is implied by
MultiParamTypeClasses
.