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The `Maybes' type

Note: a `Maybe' type is nearly inevitable in Haskell 1.3. You should use this module with `-fhaskell-1.3'.

Two non-abstract types:

data Maybe    a       = Nothing       | Just a -- Prelude; re-exported
data MaybeErr val err = Succeeded val | Failed err

Some operations to do with `Maybe' (some commentary follows):

maybeToBool :: Maybe a -> Bool      -- Nothing => False; Just => True
catMaybes   :: [Maybe a] -> [a]
allMaybes   :: [Maybe a] -> Maybe [a]
firstJust   :: [Maybe a] -> Maybe a
findJust    :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> Maybe b

assocMaybe  :: Eq a => [(a,b)] -> a -> Maybe b
mkLookupFun :: (key -> key -> Bool) -- Equality predicate
            -> [(key,val)]          -- The assoc list
            -> (key -> Maybe val)   -- A lookup fun to use

    -- a monad thing
thenMaybe   :: Maybe a -> (a -> Maybe b) -> Maybe b
returnMaybe :: a -> Maybe a
failMaybe   :: Maybe a
mapMaybe    :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> Maybe [b]

`catMaybes' takes a list of `Maybe's and returns a list of the contents of all the `Just's in it.

`allMaybes' collects a list of `Justs' into a single `Just', returning `Nothing' if there are any `Nothings'.

`firstJust' takes a list of `Maybes' and returns the first `Just' if there is one, or `Nothing' otherwise.

`assocMaybe' looks up in an association list, returning `Nothing' if it fails.

Now, some operations to do with `MaybeErr' (comments follow):

    -- a monad thing (surprise, surprise)
thenMaB   :: MaybeErr a err -> (a -> MaybeErr b err) -> MaybeErr b err
returnMaB :: val -> MaybeErr val err
failMaB   :: err -> MaybeErr val err

listMaybeErrs :: [MaybeErr val err] -> MaybeErr [val] [err]
foldlMaybeErrs :: (acc -> input -> MaybeErr acc err)
               -> acc
               -> [input]
               -> MaybeErr acc [err]

`listMaybeErrs' takes a list of `MaybeErrs' and, if they all succeed, returns a `Succeeded' of a list of their values. If any fail, it returns a `Failed' of the list of all the errors in the list.

`foldlMaybeErrs' works along a list, carrying an accumulator; it applies the given function to the accumulator and the next list item, accumulating any errors that occur.

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