This library provides support for strict state threads, as described in the PLDI '94 paper by John Launchbury and Simon Peyton Jones [LazyStateThreads]. In addition to the monad ST, it also provides mutable variables STRef and mutable arrays STArray.
module ST( module ST, module Monad ) where import Monad data ST s a -- abstract type runST :: forall a. (forall s. ST s a) -> a fixST :: (a -> ST s a) -> ST s a unsafeInterleaveST :: ST s a -> ST s a instance Functor (ST s) instance Monad (ST s) data STRef s a -- mutable variables in state thread s -- containing values of type a. newSTRef :: a -> ST s (STRef s a) readSTRef :: STRef s a -> ST s a writeSTRef :: STRef s a -> a -> ST s () modifySTRef :: STRef s a -> (a -> a) -> ST s () -- deprecated, use modifySTRef updateSTRef :: STRef s a -> (a -> a) -> ST s () instance Eq (STRef s a) data STArray s ix elt -- mutable arrays in state thread s -- indexed by values of type ix -- containing values of type a. newSTArray :: Ix ix => (ix,ix) -> elt -> ST s (STArray s ix elt) boundsSTArray :: Ix ix => STArray s ix elt -> (ix, ix) readSTArray :: Ix ix => STArray s ix elt -> ix -> ST s elt writeSTArray :: Ix ix => STArray s ix elt -> ix -> elt -> ST s () thawSTArray :: Ix ix => Array ix elt -> ST s (STArray s ix elt) freezeSTArray :: Ix ix => STArray s ix elt -> ST s (Array ix elt) unsafeFreezeSTArray :: Ix ix => STArray s ix elt -> ST s (Array ix elt) instance Eq (STArray s ix elt) unsafeIOToST :: IO a -> ST s a stToIO :: ST s a -> IO a
GHC also supports ByteArrays --- these aren't supported by Hugs yet.
The operations freezeSTArray and thawSTArray convert mutable arrays to and from immutable arrays. Semantically, they are identical to copying the array and they are usually implemented that way. The operation unsafeFreezeSTArray is a faster version of freezeSTArray which omits the copying step. It's a safe substitute for freezeSTArray if you don't modify the mutable array after freezing it.
Hugs provides thenLazyST and thenStrictST so that you can import LazyST (say) and still use the strict instance in those places where it matters. GHC implements LazyST and ST using different types, so this isn't possible.
Operations for coercing an ST action into an IO one, and vice versa are also provided. Notice that coercing an IO action into an ST action is 'lossy', since any exception raised within the IO action will not be caught within the ST monad, as it doesn't support (monadic) exceptions.