Each of GHC's command line options is classified as either static or dynamic. A static flag may only be specified on the command line, whereas a dynamic flag may also be given in an OPTIONS pragma in a source file or set from the GHCi command-line with :set.
As a rule of thumb, all the language options are dynamic, as are the warning options and the debugging options. The rest are static, with the notable exceptions of -v, -cpp, -fasm, -fvia-C, and -#include. The flag reference tables (Section 4.19) lists the status of each flag.