{-# OPTIONS -fno-warn-missing-signatures #-}
-- The register allocator
-- (c) The University of Glasgow 2004

The algorithm is roughly:
  1) Compute strongly connected components of the basic block list.

  2) Compute liveness (mapping from pseudo register to
     point(s) of death?).

  3) Walk instructions in each basic block.  We keep track of
	(a) Free real registers (a bitmap?)
	(b) Current assignment of temporaries to machine registers and/or
	    spill slots (call this the "assignment").
     	(c) Partial mapping from basic block ids to a virt-to-loc mapping.
	    When we first encounter a branch to a basic block,
	    we fill in its entry in this table with the current mapping.

     For each instruction:
	(a) For each real register clobbered by this instruction:
	    If a temporary resides in it,
		If the temporary is live after this instruction,
		    Move the temporary to another (non-clobbered & free) reg,
		    or spill it to memory.  Mark the temporary as residing
		    in both memory and a register if it was spilled (it might
		    need to be read by this instruction).
	    (ToDo: this is wrong for jump instructions?)

	(b) For each temporary *read* by the instruction:
	    If the temporary does not have a real register allocation:
		- Allocate a real register from the free list.  If
		  the list is empty:
		  - Find a temporary to spill.  Pick one that is
		    not used in this instruction (ToDo: not
		    used for a while...)
		  - generate a spill instruction
		- If the temporary was previously spilled,
		  generate an instruction to read the temp from its spill loc.
	    (optimisation: if we can see that a real register is going to
            be used soon, then don't use it for allocation).

	(c) Update the current assignment

	(d) If the intstruction is a branch:
	      if the destination block already has a register assignment,
	        Generate a new block with fixup code and redirect the
		jump to the new block.
		Update the block id->assignment mapping with the current

	(e) Delete all register assignments for temps which are read
	    (only) and die here.  Update the free register list.

	(f) Mark all registers clobbered by this instruction as not free,
	    and mark temporaries which have been spilled due to clobbering
	    as in memory (step (a) marks then as in both mem & reg).

	(g) For each temporary *written* by this instruction:
	    Allocate a real register as for (b), spilling something
	    else if necessary.
		- except when updating the assignment, drop any memory
		  locations that the temporary was previously in, since
		  they will be no longer valid after this instruction.

	(h) Delete all register assignments for temps which are
	    written and die here (there should rarely be any).  Update
	    the free register list.

	(i) Rewrite the instruction with the new mapping.

	(j) For each spilled reg known to be now dead, re-add its stack slot
	    to the free list.


module RegAlloc.Linear.Main (
	module	RegAlloc.Linear.Base,
	module	RegAlloc.Linear.Stats
  ) where

#include "HsVersions.h"

import RegAlloc.Linear.State
import RegAlloc.Linear.Base
import RegAlloc.Linear.StackMap
import RegAlloc.Linear.FreeRegs
import RegAlloc.Linear.Stats
import RegAlloc.Linear.JoinToTargets
import TargetReg
import RegAlloc.Liveness
import Instruction
import Reg

import BlockId
import Cmm hiding (RegSet)

import Digraph
import Unique
import UniqSet
import UniqFM
import UniqSupply
import Outputable

import Data.Maybe
import Data.List
import Control.Monad

#include "../includes/stg/MachRegs.h"

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Top level of the register allocator

-- Allocate registers
	:: (Outputable instr, Instruction instr)
	=> LiveCmmTop instr
	-> UniqSM (NatCmmTop instr, Maybe RegAllocStats)

regAlloc (CmmData sec d) 
 	= return
		( CmmData sec d
		, Nothing )
regAlloc (CmmProc (LiveInfo info _ _) lbl params (ListGraph []))
	= return ( CmmProc info lbl params (ListGraph [])
		 , Nothing )
regAlloc (CmmProc static lbl params (ListGraph comps))
	| LiveInfo info (Just first_id) block_live	<- static
	= do	
 		-- do register allocation on each component.
		(final_blocks, stats)
			<- linearRegAlloc first_id block_live 
			$ map (\b -> case b of 
					BasicBlock _ [b]	-> AcyclicSCC b
					BasicBlock _ bs		-> CyclicSCC  bs)
			$ comps

		-- make sure the block that was first in the input list
		--	stays at the front of the output
		let ((first':_), rest')
				= partition ((== first_id) . blockId) final_blocks

		return	( CmmProc info lbl params (ListGraph (first' : rest'))
			, Just stats)
-- bogus. to make non-exhaustive match warning go away.
regAlloc (CmmProc _ _ _ _)
	= panic "RegAllocLinear.regAlloc: no match"

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Linear sweep to allocate registers

-- | Do register allocation on some basic blocks.
--   But be careful to allocate a block in an SCC only if it has
--   an entry in the block map or it is the first block.
	:: (Outputable instr, Instruction instr)
	=> BlockId                      -- ^ the first block
        -> BlockMap RegSet		-- ^ live regs on entry to each basic block
	-> [SCC (LiveBasicBlock instr)]	-- ^ instructions annotated with "deaths"
	-> UniqSM ([NatBasicBlock instr], RegAllocStats)

linearRegAlloc first_id block_live sccs
 = do	us	<- getUs
 	let (_, _, stats, blocks) =
		runR emptyBlockMap initFreeRegs emptyRegMap emptyStackMap us
			$ linearRA_SCCs first_id block_live [] sccs

	return	(blocks, stats)

linearRA_SCCs _ _ blocksAcc []
	= return $ reverse blocksAcc

linearRA_SCCs first_id block_live blocksAcc (AcyclicSCC block : sccs) 
 = do	blocks'	<- processBlock block_live block
	linearRA_SCCs first_id block_live 
		((reverse blocks') ++ blocksAcc)

linearRA_SCCs first_id block_live blocksAcc (CyclicSCC blocks : sccs) 
 = do
        blockss' <- process first_id block_live blocks [] (return [])
	linearRA_SCCs first_id block_live
		(reverse (concat blockss') ++ blocksAcc)

{- from John Dias's patch 2008/10/16:
   The linear-scan allocator sometimes allocates a block
   before allocating one of its predecessors, which could lead to 
   inconsistent allocations. Make it so a block is only allocated
   if a predecessor has set the "incoming" assignments for the block, or
   if it's the procedure's entry block.

   BL 2009/02: Careful. If the assignment for a block doesn't get set for
   some reason then this function will loop. We should probably do some 
   more sanity checking to guard against this eventuality.
process _ _ [] []         accum 
	= return $ reverse accum

process first_id block_live [] next_round accum 
	= process first_id block_live next_round [] accum

process first_id block_live (b@(BasicBlock id _) : blocks) next_round accum 
 = do 	
	block_assig <- getBlockAssigR

    	if isJust (lookupBlockEnv block_assig id) 
             || id == first_id
         then do 
		b'  <- processBlock block_live b
                process first_id block_live blocks next_round (b' : accum)

         else 	process first_id block_live blocks (b : next_round) accum

-- | Do register allocation on this basic block
	:: (Outputable instr, Instruction instr)
	=> BlockMap RegSet 		-- ^ live regs on entry to each basic block
	-> LiveBasicBlock instr 	-- ^ block to do register allocation on
	-> RegM [NatBasicBlock instr]	-- ^ block with registers allocated

processBlock block_live (BasicBlock id instrs)
 = do 	initBlock id
 	(instrs', fixups)
		<- linearRA block_live [] [] id instrs
	return	$ BasicBlock id instrs' : fixups

-- | Load the freeregs and current reg assignment into the RegM state
--	for the basic block with this BlockId.
initBlock :: BlockId -> RegM ()
initBlock id
 = do	block_assig	<- getBlockAssigR
  	case lookupBlockEnv block_assig id of
	        -- no prior info about this block: assume everything is
	        -- free and the assignment is empty.
		 -> do	-- pprTrace "initFreeRegs" (text $ show initFreeRegs) (return ())
		 	setFreeRegsR	initFreeRegs
		 	setAssigR	emptyRegMap

		-- load info about register assignments leading into this block.
		Just (freeregs, assig)
		 -> do	setFreeRegsR 	freeregs
			setAssigR	assig

-- | Do allocation for a sequence of instructions.
	:: (Outputable instr, Instruction instr)
	=> BlockMap RegSet			-- ^ map of what vregs are live on entry to each block.
	-> [instr] 				-- ^ accumulator for instructions already processed.
	-> [NatBasicBlock instr]		-- ^ accumulator for blocks of fixup code.
	-> BlockId				-- ^ id of the current block, for debugging.
	-> [LiveInstr instr]			-- ^ liveness annotated instructions in this block.

	-> RegM ( [instr]			--   instructions after register allocation
		, [NatBasicBlock instr])	--   fresh blocks of fixup code.

linearRA _          accInstr accFixup _ []
	= return 
		( reverse accInstr		-- instrs need to be returned in the correct order.
		, accFixup)			-- it doesn't matter what order the fixup blocks are returned in.

linearRA block_live accInstr accFixups id (instr:instrs)
 = do
 	(accInstr', new_fixups) 
		<- raInsn block_live accInstr id instr

	linearRA block_live accInstr' (new_fixups ++ accFixups) id instrs

-- | Do allocation for a single instruction.
	:: (Outputable instr, Instruction instr)
	=> BlockMap RegSet			-- ^ map of what vregs are love on entry to each block.
	-> [instr]				-- ^ accumulator for instructions already processed.
	-> BlockId				-- ^ the id of the current block, for debugging
	-> LiveInstr instr 			-- ^ the instr to have its regs allocated, with liveness info.
	-> RegM 
		( [instr]			-- new instructions
		, [NatBasicBlock instr])	-- extra fixup blocks

raInsn _     new_instrs _ (Instr ii Nothing)  
	| Just n	<- takeDeltaInstr ii
 	= do	setDeltaR n
		return (new_instrs, [])

raInsn _     new_instrs _ (Instr ii Nothing)
	| isMetaInstr ii
	= return (new_instrs, [])

raInsn block_live new_instrs id (Instr instr (Just live))
 = do
    assig    <- getAssigR

    -- If we have a reg->reg move between virtual registers, where the
    -- src register is not live after this instruction, and the dst
    -- register does not already have an assignment,
    -- and the source register is assigned to a register, not to a spill slot,
    -- then we can eliminate the instruction.
    -- (we can't eliminitate it if the source register is on the stack, because
    --  we do not want to use one spill slot for different virtual registers)
    case takeRegRegMoveInstr instr of
	Just (src,dst)	| src `elementOfUniqSet` (liveDieRead live), 
		  	  isVirtualReg dst,
		 	  not (dst `elemUFM` assig),
		 	  Just (InReg _) <- (lookupUFM assig src) -> do
	   case src of
	      (RegReal rr) -> setAssigR (addToUFM assig dst (InReg rr))
		-- if src is a fixed reg, then we just map dest to this
		-- reg in the assignment.  src must be an allocatable reg,
		-- otherwise it wouldn't be in r_dying.
	      _virt -> case lookupUFM assig src of
		         Nothing -> panic "raInsn"
			 Just loc ->
			   setAssigR (addToUFM (delFromUFM assig src) dst loc)

	   -- we have eliminated this instruction
	  freeregs <- getFreeRegsR
    	  assig <- getAssigR
          pprTrace "raInsn" (text "ELIMINATED: " <> docToSDoc (pprInstr instr) 
	  		$$ ppr r_dying <+> ppr w_dying $$ text (show freeregs) $$ ppr assig) $ do
	   return (new_instrs, [])

	_ -> genRaInsn block_live new_instrs id instr 
			(uniqSetToList $ liveDieRead live) 
			(uniqSetToList $ liveDieWrite live)

raInsn _ _ _ instr
	= pprPanic "raInsn" (text "no match for:" <> ppr instr)

genRaInsn block_live new_instrs block_id instr r_dying w_dying =
    case regUsageOfInstr instr              of { RU read written ->
    let	real_written 	= [ rr 	| (RegReal     rr) <- written ]
    let virt_written	= [ vr  | (RegVirtual  vr) <- written ]

    -- we don't need to do anything with real registers that are
    -- only read by this instr.  (the list is typically ~2 elements,
    -- so using nub isn't a problem).
    let virt_read 	= nub [ vr	| (RegVirtual vr) <- read ]

    -- (a) save any temporaries which will be clobbered by this instruction
    clobber_saves 	<- saveClobberedTemps real_written r_dying

    -- debugging
{-  freeregs <- getFreeRegsR
    assig    <- getAssigR
    pprTrace "genRaInsn" 
    	(ppr instr 
		$$ text "r_dying      = " <+> ppr r_dying 
		$$ text "w_dying      = " <+> ppr w_dying 
		$$ text "virt_read    = " <+> ppr virt_read 
		$$ text "virt_written = " <+> ppr virt_written 
		$$ text "freeregs     = " <+> text (show freeregs)
		$$ text "assig        = " <+> ppr assig)
	$ do

    -- (b), (c) allocate real regs for all regs read by this instruction.
    (r_spills, r_allocd) <- 
	allocateRegsAndSpill True{-reading-} virt_read [] [] virt_read

    -- (d) Update block map for new destinations
    -- NB. do this before removing dead regs from the assignment, because
    -- these dead regs might in fact be live in the jump targets (they're
    -- only dead in the code that follows in the current basic block).
    (fixup_blocks, adjusted_instr)
	<- joinToTargets block_live block_id instr

    -- (e) Delete all register assignments for temps which are read
    --     (only) and die here.  Update the free register list.
    releaseRegs r_dying

    -- (f) Mark regs which are clobbered as unallocatable
    clobberRegs real_written

    -- (g) Allocate registers for temporaries *written* (only)
    (w_spills, w_allocd) <- 
	allocateRegsAndSpill False{-writing-} virt_written [] [] virt_written

    -- (h) Release registers for temps which are written here and not
    -- used again.
    releaseRegs w_dying

	-- (i) Patch the instruction
		= listToUFM
			[ (t, RegReal r) 
				| (t, r) <- zip virt_read    r_allocd
					 ++ zip virt_written w_allocd ]

		= patchRegsOfInstr adjusted_instr patchLookup

	patchLookup x 
		= case lookupUFM patch_map x of
			Nothing -> x
			Just y  -> y

    -- (j) free up stack slots for dead spilled regs
    -- TODO (can't be bothered right now)

    -- erase reg->reg moves where the source and destination are the same.
    --	If the src temp didn't die in this instr but happened to be allocated
    --	to the same real reg as the destination, then we can erase the move anyway.
    let	squashed_instr	= case takeRegRegMoveInstr patched_instr of
				Just (src, dst)
				 | src == dst	-> []
				_		-> [patched_instr]

    let code = squashed_instr ++ w_spills ++ reverse r_spills
		++ clobber_saves ++ new_instrs

--    pprTrace "patched-code" ((vcat $ map (docToSDoc . pprInstr) code)) $ do
--    pprTrace "pached-fixup" ((ppr fixup_blocks)) $ do

    return (code, fixup_blocks)


-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- releaseRegs

releaseRegs regs = do
  assig <- getAssigR
  free <- getFreeRegsR
  loop assig free regs 
  loop _     free _ | free `seq` False = undefined
  loop assig free [] = do setAssigR assig; setFreeRegsR free; return ()
  loop assig free (RegReal rr : rs) = loop assig (releaseReg rr free) rs
  loop assig free (r:rs) = 
     case lookupUFM assig r of
	Just (InBoth real _) -> loop (delFromUFM assig r) (releaseReg real free) rs
	Just (InReg real) -> loop (delFromUFM assig r) (releaseReg real free) rs
	_other            -> loop (delFromUFM assig r) free rs

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Clobber real registers

-- For each temp in a register that is going to be clobbered:
--	- if the temp dies after this instruction, do nothing
--	- otherwise, put it somewhere safe (another reg if possible,
--	 	otherwise spill and record InBoth in the assignment).
--	- for allocateRegs on the temps *read*,
--	- clobbered regs are allocatable.
--	for allocateRegs on the temps *written*, 
--	  - clobbered regs are not allocatable.
--	TODO: 	instead of spilling, try to copy clobbered
--		temps to another register if possible.

	:: Instruction instr
	=> [RealReg]		-- real registers clobbered by this instruction
	-> [Reg]		-- registers which are no longer live after this insn
	-> RegM [instr]		-- return: instructions to spill any temps that will
				-- be clobbered.

saveClobberedTemps [] _ 
	= return []

saveClobberedTemps clobbered dying 
 = do
	assig 	<- getAssigR
	let to_spill  
		= [ (temp,reg) 
			| (temp, InReg reg) <- ufmToList assig
			, any (realRegsAlias reg) clobbered
			, temp `notElem` map getUnique dying  ]

	(instrs,assig') <- clobber assig [] to_spill
	setAssigR assig'
	return instrs

	clobber assig instrs [] 
		= return (instrs, assig)

	clobber assig instrs ((temp, reg) : rest)
	 = do
		(spill, slot)	<- spillR (RegReal reg) temp

		-- record why this reg was spilled for profiling
		recordSpill (SpillClobber temp)

		let new_assign	= addToUFM assig temp (InBoth reg slot)

		clobber new_assign (spill : instrs) rest

-- | Mark all these regal regs as allocated,
--	and kick out their vreg assignments.
clobberRegs :: [RealReg] -> RegM ()
clobberRegs [] 	
	= return ()

clobberRegs clobbered 
 = do
	freeregs 	<- getFreeRegsR
	setFreeRegsR $! foldr allocateReg freeregs clobbered

	assig 		<- getAssigR
	setAssigR $! clobber assig (ufmToList assig)

	-- if the temp was InReg and clobbered, then we will have
	-- saved it in saveClobberedTemps above.  So the only case
	-- we have to worry about here is InBoth.  Note that this
	-- also catches temps which were loaded up during allocation
	-- of read registers, not just those saved in saveClobberedTemps.

	clobber assig [] 
		= assig

	clobber assig ((temp, InBoth reg slot) : rest)
		| any (realRegsAlias reg) clobbered
		= clobber (addToUFM assig temp (InMem slot)) rest
	clobber assig (_:rest)
		= clobber assig rest 

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- allocateRegsAndSpill

-- This function does several things:
--   For each temporary referred to by this instruction,
--   we allocate a real register (spilling another temporary if necessary).
--   We load the temporary up from memory if necessary.
--   We also update the register assignment in the process, and
--   the list of free registers and free stack slots.

	:: Instruction instr
	=> Bool			-- True <=> reading (load up spilled regs)
	-> [VirtualReg]		-- don't push these out
	-> [instr]		-- spill insns
	-> [RealReg]		-- real registers allocated (accum.)
	-> [VirtualReg]		-- temps to allocate
	-> RegM ( [instr]
	        , [RealReg])

allocateRegsAndSpill _       _    spills alloc []
 	= return (spills, reverse alloc)

allocateRegsAndSpill reading keep spills alloc (r:rs) 
 = do	assig <- getAssigR
  	case lookupUFM assig r of
		-- case (1a): already in a register
		Just (InReg my_reg) ->
			allocateRegsAndSpill reading keep spills (my_reg:alloc) rs

		-- case (1b): already in a register (and memory)
		-- NB1. if we're writing this register, update its assignemnt to be
		-- InReg, because the memory value is no longer valid.
		-- NB2. This is why we must process written registers here, even if they
		-- are also read by the same instruction.
		Just (InBoth my_reg _) 
		 -> do	when (not reading) (setAssigR (addToUFM assig r (InReg my_reg)))
			allocateRegsAndSpill reading keep spills (my_reg:alloc) rs

		-- Not already in a register, so we need to find a free one...
		loc -> allocRegsAndSpill_spill reading keep spills alloc r rs loc assig

allocRegsAndSpill_spill reading keep spills alloc r rs loc assig
 = do
	freeRegs 		<- getFreeRegsR
	let freeRegs_thisClass	= getFreeRegs (classOfVirtualReg r) freeRegs

        case freeRegs_thisClass of

	 -- case (2): we have a free register
	 (my_reg : _) -> 
	   do	spills'   <- loadTemp reading r loc my_reg spills

		let new_loc 
			-- if the tmp was in a slot, then now its in a reg as well
			| Just (InMem slot) <- loc
			, reading 
			= InBoth my_reg slot

			-- tmp has been loaded into a reg
			| otherwise
			= InReg my_reg

		setAssigR 	(addToUFM assig r $! new_loc)
		setFreeRegsR $ 	allocateReg my_reg freeRegs

		allocateRegsAndSpill reading keep spills' (my_reg : alloc) rs

	  -- case (3): we need to push something out to free up a register
	 [] -> 
	   do 	let keep' = map getUnique keep

		-- the vregs we could kick out that are already in a slot
		let candidates_inBoth
			= [ (temp, reg, mem)
			   	| (temp, InBoth reg mem) <- ufmToList assig
			  	, temp `notElem` keep'
				, targetClassOfRealReg reg == classOfVirtualReg r ]

		-- the vregs we could kick out that are only in a reg
		--	this would require writing the reg to a new slot before using it.
		let candidates_inReg
			= [ (temp, reg)
		   		| (temp, InReg reg) 	<- ufmToList assig
				, temp `notElem` keep'
				, targetClassOfRealReg reg == classOfVirtualReg r ]

		let result

			-- we have a temporary that is in both register and mem,
			-- just free up its register for use.
			| (temp, my_reg, slot) : _ 	<- candidates_inBoth
			= do	spills' <- loadTemp reading r loc my_reg spills
				let assig1  = addToUFM assig temp (InMem slot)
				let assig2  = addToUFM assig1 r   (InReg my_reg)

				setAssigR assig2
				allocateRegsAndSpill reading keep spills' (my_reg:alloc) rs

			-- otherwise, we need to spill a temporary that currently
			-- resides in a register.
			| (temp_to_push_out, (my_reg :: RealReg)) : _
					<- candidates_inReg
			= do
				(spill_insn, slot) <- spillR (RegReal my_reg) temp_to_push_out
				let spill_store	 = (if reading then id else reverse)
							[ -- COMMENT (fsLit "spill alloc") 
							   spill_insn ]

				-- record that this temp was spilled
				recordSpill (SpillAlloc temp_to_push_out)

				-- update the register assignment
		    	        let assig1  = addToUFM assig temp_to_push_out	(InMem slot)
			        let assig2  = addToUFM assig1 r			(InReg my_reg)
			        setAssigR assig2

				-- if need be, load up a spilled temp into the reg we've just freed up.
		    	        spills' <- loadTemp reading r loc my_reg spills

		 	        allocateRegsAndSpill reading keep
					(spill_store ++ spills')
				 	(my_reg:alloc) rs

			-- there wasn't anything to spill, so we're screwed.
			| otherwise
			= pprPanic ("RegAllocLinear.allocRegsAndSpill: no spill candidates\n")
			$ vcat 
				[ text "allocating vreg:  " <> text (show r)
				, text "assignment:       " <> text (show $ ufmToList assig) 
				, text "freeRegs:         " <> text (show freeRegs) 
				, text "initFreeRegs:     " <> text (show initFreeRegs) ]


-- | Load up a spilled temporary if we need to.
	:: Instruction instr
	=> Bool
	-> VirtualReg 	-- the temp being loaded
	-> Maybe Loc	-- the current location of this temp
	-> RealReg	-- the hreg to load the temp into
	-> [instr]
	-> RegM [instr]

loadTemp True vreg (Just (InMem slot)) hreg spills
 = do
 	insn <- loadR (RegReal hreg) slot
	recordSpill (SpillLoad $ getUnique vreg)
	return	$  {- COMMENT (fsLit "spill load") : -} insn : spills

loadTemp _ _ _ _ spills =
   return spills