% (c) The GRASP/AQUA Project, Glasgow University, 1992-1998
\section[CoreRules]{Transformation rules}

-- | Functions for collecting together and applying rewrite rules to a module.
-- The 'CoreRule' datatype itself is declared elsewhere.
module Rules (
	-- * RuleBase
	-- ** Constructing 
	emptyRuleBase, mkRuleBase, extendRuleBaseList, 
	unionRuleBase, pprRuleBase, 
	-- ** Checking rule applications

        -- ** Manipulating 'SpecInfo' rules
	mkSpecInfo, extendSpecInfo, addSpecInfo,
	-- * Misc. CoreRule helpers
        rulesOfBinds, getRules, pprRulesForUser,
        lookupRule, mkLocalRule, roughTopNames
    ) where

#include "HsVersions.h"

import CoreSyn		-- All of it
import OccurAnal	( occurAnalyseExpr )
import CoreFVs		( exprFreeVars, exprsFreeVars, bindFreeVars, rulesFreeVars )
import CoreUtils	( exprType )
import PprCore		( pprRules )
import Type		( Type, TvSubstEnv, tcEqTypeX )
import TcType		( tcSplitTyConApp_maybe )
import CoreTidy		( tidyRules )
import Id
import IdInfo		( SpecInfo( SpecInfo ) )
import Var		( Var )
import VarEnv
import VarSet
import Name		( Name, NamedThing(..) )
import NameEnv
import Unify 		( ruleMatchTyX, MatchEnv(..) )
import BasicTypes	( Activation )
import StaticFlags	( opt_PprStyle_Debug )
import Outputable
import FastString
import Maybes
import OrdList
import Bag
import Util
import Data.List

%*									*
\subsection[specialisation-IdInfo]{Specialisation info about an @Id@}
%*									*

A @CoreRule@ holds details of one rule for an @Id@, which
includes its specialisations.

For example, if a rule for @f@ contains the mapping:
	forall a b d. [Type (List a), Type b, Var d]  ===>  f' a b
then when we find an application of f to matching types, we simply replace
it by the matching RHS:
	f (List Int) Bool dict ===>  f' Int Bool
All the stuff about how many dictionaries to discard, and what types
to apply the specialised function to, are handled by the fact that the
Rule contains a template for the result of the specialisation.

There is one more exciting case, which is dealt with in exactly the same
way.  If the specialised value is unboxed then it is lifted at its
definition site and unlifted at its uses.  For example:

	pi :: forall a. Num a => a

might have a specialisation

	[Int#] ===>  (case pi' of Lift pi# -> pi#)

where pi' :: Lift Int# is the specialised version of pi.

mkLocalRule :: RuleName -> Activation 
	    -> Name -> [CoreBndr] -> [CoreExpr] -> CoreExpr -> CoreRule
-- ^ Used to make 'CoreRule' for an 'Id' defined in the module being 
-- compiled. See also 'CoreSyn.CoreRule'
mkLocalRule name act fn bndrs args rhs
  = Rule { ru_name = name, ru_fn = fn, ru_act = act,
	   ru_bndrs = bndrs, ru_args = args,
	   ru_rhs = rhs, ru_rough = roughTopNames args,
	   ru_local = True }

roughTopNames :: [CoreExpr] -> [Maybe Name]
-- ^ Find the \"top\" free names of several expressions. 
-- Such names are either:
-- 1. The function finally being applied to in an application chain
--    (if that name is a GlobalId: see "Var#globalvslocal"), or
-- 2. The 'TyCon' if the expression is a 'Type'
-- This is used for the fast-match-check for rules; 
--	if the top names don't match, the rest can't
roughTopNames args = map roughTopName args

roughTopName :: CoreExpr -> Maybe Name
roughTopName (Type ty) = case tcSplitTyConApp_maybe ty of
			  Just (tc,_) -> Just (getName tc)
			  Nothing     -> Nothing
roughTopName (App f _) = roughTopName f
roughTopName (Var f) | isGlobalId f = Just (idName f)
		     | otherwise    = Nothing
roughTopName _ = Nothing

ruleCantMatch :: [Maybe Name] -> [Maybe Name] -> Bool
-- ^ @ruleCantMatch tpl actual@ returns True only if @actual@
-- definitely can't match @tpl@ by instantiating @tpl@.  
-- It's only a one-way match; unlike instance matching we 
-- don't consider unification.
-- Notice that [_$_]
--	@ruleCantMatch [Nothing] [Just n2] = False@
--      Reason: a template variable can be instantiated by a constant
-- Also:
--	@ruleCantMatch [Just n1] [Nothing] = False@
--      Reason: a local variable @v@ in the actuals might [_$_]

ruleCantMatch (Just n1 : ts) (Just n2 : as) = n1 /= n2 || ruleCantMatch ts as
ruleCantMatch (_       : ts) (_       : as) = ruleCantMatch ts as
ruleCantMatch _ 	     _ 		    = False

pprRulesForUser :: [CoreRule] -> SDoc
-- (a) tidy the rules
-- (b) sort them into order based on the rule name
-- (c) suppress uniques (unless -dppr-debug is on)
-- This combination makes the output stable so we can use in testing
-- It's here rather than in PprCore because it calls tidyRules
pprRulesForUser rules
  = withPprStyle defaultUserStyle $
    pprRules $
    sortLe le_rule  $
    tidyRules emptyTidyEnv rules
    le_rule r1 r2 = ru_name r1 <= ru_name r2

%*									*
		SpecInfo: the rules in an IdInfo
%*									*

-- | Make a 'SpecInfo' containing a number of 'CoreRule's, suitable
-- for putting into an 'IdInfo'
mkSpecInfo :: [CoreRule] -> SpecInfo
mkSpecInfo rules = SpecInfo rules (rulesFreeVars rules)

extendSpecInfo :: SpecInfo -> [CoreRule] -> SpecInfo
extendSpecInfo (SpecInfo rs1 fvs1) rs2
  = SpecInfo (rs2 ++ rs1) (rulesFreeVars rs2 `unionVarSet` fvs1)

addSpecInfo :: SpecInfo -> SpecInfo -> SpecInfo
addSpecInfo (SpecInfo rs1 fvs1) (SpecInfo rs2 fvs2) 
  = SpecInfo (rs1 ++ rs2) (fvs1 `unionVarSet` fvs2)

addIdSpecialisations :: Id -> [CoreRule] -> Id
addIdSpecialisations id []
  = id
addIdSpecialisations id rules
  = setIdSpecialisation id $
    extendSpecInfo (idSpecialisation id) rules

-- | Gather all the rules for locally bound identifiers from the supplied bindings
rulesOfBinds :: [CoreBind] -> [CoreRule]
rulesOfBinds binds = concatMap (concatMap idCoreRules . bindersOf) binds

getRules :: RuleBase -> Id -> [CoreRule]
	-- The rules for an Id come from two places:
	--	(a) the ones it is born with (idCoreRules fn)
	--	(b) rules added in subsequent modules (extra_rules)
	-- PrimOps, for example, are born with a bunch of rules under (a)
getRules rule_base fn
  | isLocalId fn  = idCoreRules fn
  | otherwise     = WARN( not (isPrimOpId fn) && notNull (idCoreRules fn), 
 			  ppr fn <+> ppr (idCoreRules fn) )
		    idCoreRules fn ++ (lookupNameEnv rule_base (idName fn) `orElse` [])
	-- Only PrimOpIds have rules inside themselves, and perhaps more besides

%*									*
%*									*

-- | Gathers a collection of 'CoreRule's. Maps (the name of) an 'Id' to its rules
type RuleBase = NameEnv [CoreRule]
	-- The rules are are unordered; 
	-- we sort out any overlaps on lookup

emptyRuleBase :: RuleBase
emptyRuleBase = emptyNameEnv

mkRuleBase :: [CoreRule] -> RuleBase
mkRuleBase rules = extendRuleBaseList emptyRuleBase rules

extendRuleBaseList :: RuleBase -> [CoreRule] -> RuleBase
extendRuleBaseList rule_base new_guys
  = foldl extendRuleBase rule_base new_guys

unionRuleBase :: RuleBase -> RuleBase -> RuleBase
unionRuleBase rb1 rb2 = plusNameEnv_C (++) rb1 rb2

extendRuleBase :: RuleBase -> CoreRule -> RuleBase
extendRuleBase rule_base rule
  = extendNameEnv_Acc (:) singleton rule_base (ruleIdName rule) rule

pprRuleBase :: RuleBase -> SDoc
pprRuleBase rules = vcat [ pprRules (tidyRules emptyTidyEnv rs) 
			 | rs <- nameEnvElts rules ]

%*									*
%*									*

Note [Extra args in rule matching]
If we find a matching rule, we return (Just (rule, rhs)), 
but the rule firing has only consumed as many of the input args
as the ruleArity says.  It's up to the caller to keep track
of any left-over args.  E.g. if you call
	lookupRule ... f [e1, e2, e3]
and it returns Just (r, rhs), where r has ruleArity 2
then the real rewrite is
	f e1 e2 e3 ==> rhs e3

You might think it'd be cleaner for lookupRule to deal with the
leftover arguments, by applying 'rhs' to them, but the main call
in the Simplifier works better as it is.  Reason: the 'args' passed
to lookupRule are the result of a lazy substitution

-- | The main rule matching function. Attempts to apply all (active)
-- supplied rules to this instance of an application in a given
-- context, returning the rule applied and the resulting expression if
-- successful.
lookupRule :: (Activation -> Bool) -> InScopeSet
	    -> Id -> [CoreExpr]
	    -> [CoreRule] -> Maybe (CoreRule, CoreExpr)

-- See Note [Extra args in rule matching]
-- See comments on matchRule
lookupRule is_active in_scope fn args rules
  = -- pprTrace "matchRules" (ppr fn <+> ppr rules) $
    case go [] rules of
	[]     -> Nothing
	(m:ms) -> Just (findBest (fn,args) m ms)
    rough_args = map roughTopName args

    go :: [(CoreRule,CoreExpr)] -> [CoreRule] -> [(CoreRule,CoreExpr)]
    go ms []	       = ms
    go ms (r:rs) = case (matchRule is_active in_scope args rough_args r) of
			Just e  -> go ((r,e):ms) rs
			Nothing -> -- pprTrace "match failed" (ppr r $$ ppr args $$ 
				   -- 	ppr [(arg_id, unfoldingTemplate unf) | Var arg_id <- args, let unf = idUnfolding arg_id, isCheapUnfolding unf] )
				   go ms         rs

findBest :: (Id, [CoreExpr])
	 -> (CoreRule,CoreExpr) -> [(CoreRule,CoreExpr)] -> (CoreRule,CoreExpr)
-- All these pairs matched the expression
-- Return the pair the the most specific rule
-- The (fn,args) is just for overlap reporting

findBest _      (rule,ans)   [] = (rule,ans)
findBest target (rule1,ans1) ((rule2,ans2):prs)
  | rule1 `isMoreSpecific` rule2 = findBest target (rule1,ans1) prs
  | rule2 `isMoreSpecific` rule1 = findBest target (rule2,ans2) prs
  | debugIsOn = let pp_rule rule
			| opt_PprStyle_Debug = ppr rule
			| otherwise          = doubleQuotes (ftext (ru_name rule))
		in pprTrace "Rules.findBest: rule overlap (Rule 1 wins)"
			 (vcat [if opt_PprStyle_Debug then 
				   ptext (sLit "Expression to match:") <+> ppr fn <+> sep (map ppr args)
				else empty,
				ptext (sLit "Rule 1:") <+> pp_rule rule1, 
				ptext (sLit "Rule 2:") <+> pp_rule rule2]) $
		findBest target (rule1,ans1) prs
  | otherwise = findBest target (rule1,ans1) prs
    (fn,args) = target

isMoreSpecific :: CoreRule -> CoreRule -> Bool
isMoreSpecific (BuiltinRule {}) _ = True
isMoreSpecific _ (BuiltinRule {}) = False
isMoreSpecific (Rule { ru_bndrs = bndrs1, ru_args = args1 })
	       (Rule { ru_bndrs = bndrs2, ru_args = args2 })
  = isJust (matchN in_scope bndrs2 args2 args1)
   in_scope = mkInScopeSet (mkVarSet bndrs1)
	-- Actually we should probably include the free vars 
	-- of rule1's args, but I can't be bothered

noBlackList :: Activation -> Bool
noBlackList _ = False		-- Nothing is black listed

matchRule :: (Activation -> Bool) -> InScopeSet
	  -> [CoreExpr] -> [Maybe Name]
	  -> CoreRule -> Maybe CoreExpr

-- If (matchRule rule args) returns Just (name,rhs)
-- then (f args) matches the rule, and the corresponding
-- rewritten RHS is rhs
-- The bndrs and rhs is occurrence-analysed
-- 	Example
-- The rule
--	forall f g x. map f (map g x) ==> map (f . g) x
-- is stored
--	CoreRule "map/map" 
--		 [f,g,x]		-- tpl_vars
--		 [f,map g x]		-- tpl_args
--		 map (f.g) x)		-- rhs
-- Then the call: matchRule the_rule [e1,map e2 e3]
--	  = Just ("map/map", (\f,g,x -> rhs) e1 e2 e3)
-- Any 'surplus' arguments in the input are simply put on the end
-- of the output.

matchRule _is_active _in_scope args _rough_args
	  (BuiltinRule { ru_try = match_fn })
  = case match_fn args of
	Just expr -> Just expr
	Nothing   -> Nothing

matchRule is_active in_scope args rough_args
          (Rule { ru_act = act, ru_rough = tpl_tops,
		  ru_bndrs = tpl_vars, ru_args = tpl_args,
		  ru_rhs = rhs })
  | not (is_active act)		      = Nothing
  | ruleCantMatch tpl_tops rough_args = Nothing
  | otherwise
  = case matchN in_scope tpl_vars tpl_args args of
	Nothing		       -> Nothing
	Just (binds, tpl_vals) -> Just (mkLets binds $
					rule_fn `mkApps` tpl_vals)
    rule_fn = occurAnalyseExpr (mkLams tpl_vars rhs)
	-- We could do this when putting things into the rulebase, I guess

-- For a given match template and context, find bindings to wrap around 
-- the entire result and what should be substituted for each template variable.
-- Fail if there are two few actual arguments from the target to match the template
matchN	:: InScopeSet           -- ^ In-scope variables
	-> [Var]		-- ^ Match template type variables
	-> [CoreExpr]		-- ^ Match template
	-> [CoreExpr]		-- ^ Target; can have more elements than the template
	-> Maybe ([CoreBind],

matchN in_scope tmpl_vars tmpl_es target_es
  = do	{ (tv_subst, id_subst, binds)
		<- go init_menv emptySubstEnv tmpl_es target_es
	; return (fromOL binds, 
		  map (lookup_tmpl tv_subst id_subst) tmpl_vars') }
    (init_rn_env, tmpl_vars') = mapAccumL rnBndrL (mkRnEnv2 in_scope) tmpl_vars
	-- See Note [Template binders]

    init_menv = ME { me_tmpls = mkVarSet tmpl_vars', me_env = init_rn_env }
    go _    subst []     _  	= Just subst
    go _    _     _      [] 	= Nothing	-- Fail if too few actual args
    go menv subst (t:ts) (e:es) = do { subst1 <- match menv subst t e 
				     ; go menv subst1 ts es }

    lookup_tmpl :: TvSubstEnv -> IdSubstEnv -> Var -> CoreExpr
    lookup_tmpl tv_subst id_subst tmpl_var'
	| isTyVar tmpl_var' = case lookupVarEnv tv_subst tmpl_var' of
				Just ty 	-> Type ty
				Nothing 	-> unbound tmpl_var'
	| otherwise	    = case lookupVarEnv id_subst tmpl_var' of
				Just e -> e
				_      -> unbound tmpl_var'
    unbound var = pprPanic "Template variable unbound in rewrite rule" 
			(ppr var $$ ppr tmpl_vars $$ ppr tmpl_vars' $$ ppr tmpl_es $$ ppr target_es)

Note [Template binders]
Consider the following match:
	Template:  forall x.  f x 
	Target:     f (x+1)
This should succeed, because the template variable 'x' has 
nothing to do with the 'x' in the target. 

On reflection, this case probably does just work, but this might not
	Template:  forall x. f (\x.x) 
	Target:    f (\y.y)
Here we want to clone when we find the \x, but to know that x must be in scope

To achive this, we use rnBndrL to rename the template variables if
necessary; the renamed ones are the tmpl_vars'

		The inner workings of matching

-- These two definitions are not the same as in Subst,
-- but they simple and direct, and purely local to this module
-- * The domain of the TvSubstEnv and IdSubstEnv are the template
--   variables passed into the match.
-- * The (OrdList CoreBind) in a SubstEnv are the bindings floated out
--   from nested matches; see the Let case of match, below
type SubstEnv   = (TvSubstEnv, IdSubstEnv, OrdList CoreBind)
type IdSubstEnv = IdEnv CoreExpr		

emptySubstEnv :: SubstEnv
emptySubstEnv = (emptyVarEnv, emptyVarEnv, nilOL)

--	At one stage I tried to match even if there are more 
--	template args than real args.

--	I now think this is probably a bad idea.
--	Should the template (map f xs) match (map g)?  I think not.
--	For a start, in general eta expansion wastes work.
--	SLPJ July 99

match :: MatchEnv
      -> SubstEnv
      -> CoreExpr		-- Template
      -> CoreExpr		-- Target
      -> Maybe SubstEnv

-- See the notes with Unify.match, which matches types
-- Everything is very similar for terms

-- Interesting examples:
-- Consider matching
--	\x->f 	   against    \f->f
-- When we meet the lambdas we must remember to rename f to f' in the
-- second expresion.  The RnEnv2 does that.
-- Consider matching 
--	forall a. \b->b	   against   \a->3
-- We must rename the \a.  Otherwise when we meet the lambdas we 
-- might substitute [a/b] in the template, and then erroneously 
-- succeed in matching what looks like the template variable 'a' against 3.

-- The Var case follows closely what happens in Unify.match
match menv subst (Var v1) e2 
  | Just subst <- match_var menv subst v1 e2
  = Just subst

match menv subst (Note _ e1) e2 = match menv subst e1 e2
match menv subst e1 (Note _ e2) = match menv subst e1 e2
      -- Ignore notes in both template and thing to be matched
      -- See Note [Notes in RULE matching]

match menv subst e1 (Var v2)      -- Note [Expanding variables]
  | not (locallyBoundR rn_env v2) -- Note [Do not expand locally-bound variables]
  , Just e2' <- expandId v2'
  = match (menv { me_env = nukeRnEnvR rn_env }) subst e1 e2'
    v2'    = lookupRnInScope rn_env v2
    rn_env = me_env menv
	-- Notice that we look up v2 in the in-scope set
	-- See Note [Lookup in-scope]
	-- No need to apply any renaming first (hence no rnOccR)
	-- becuase of the not-locallyBoundR

match menv (tv_subst, id_subst, binds) e1 (Let bind e2)
  | all freshly_bound bndrs	-- See Note [Matching lets]
  , not (any (locallyBoundR rn_env) bind_fvs)
  = match (menv { me_env = rn_env' }) 
	  (tv_subst, id_subst, binds `snocOL` bind')
	  e1 e2'
    rn_env   = me_env menv
    bndrs    = bindersOf  bind
    bind_fvs = varSetElems (bindFreeVars bind)
    freshly_bound x = not (x `rnInScope` rn_env)
    bind'   = bind
    e2'     = e2
    rn_env' = extendRnInScopeList rn_env bndrs

match _ subst (Lit lit1) (Lit lit2)
  | lit1 == lit2
  = Just subst

match menv subst (App f1 a1) (App f2 a2)
  = do 	{ subst' <- match menv subst f1 f2
	; match menv subst' a1 a2 }

match menv subst (Lam x1 e1) (Lam x2 e2)
  = match menv' subst e1 e2
    menv' = menv { me_env = rnBndr2 (me_env menv) x1 x2 }

-- This rule does eta expansion
--		(\x.M)  ~  N 	iff	M  ~  N x
-- It's important that this is *after* the let rule,
-- so that 	(\x.M)  ~  (let y = e in \y.N)
-- does the let thing, and then gets the lam/lam rule above
match menv subst (Lam x1 e1) e2
  = match menv' subst e1 (App e2 (varToCoreExpr new_x))
    (rn_env', new_x) = rnBndrL (me_env menv) x1
    menv' = menv { me_env = rn_env' }

-- Eta expansion the other way
--	M  ~  (\y.N)	iff   M	y     ~  N
match menv subst e1 (Lam x2 e2)
  = match menv' subst (App e1 (varToCoreExpr new_x)) e2
    (rn_env', new_x) = rnBndrR (me_env menv) x2
    menv' = menv { me_env = rn_env' }

match menv subst (Case e1 x1 ty1 alts1) (Case e2 x2 ty2 alts2)
  = do	{ subst1 <- match_ty menv subst ty1 ty2
	; subst2 <- match menv subst1 e1 e2
	; let menv' = menv { me_env = rnBndr2 (me_env menv) x1 x2 }
	; match_alts menv' subst2 alts1 alts2	-- Alts are both sorted

match menv subst (Type ty1) (Type ty2)
  = match_ty menv subst ty1 ty2

match menv subst (Cast e1 co1) (Cast e2 co2)
  = do	{ subst1 <- match_ty menv subst co1 co2
	; match menv subst1 e1 e2 }

-- Everything else fails
match _ _ _e1 _e2 = -- pprTrace "Failing at" ((text "e1:" <+> ppr _e1) $$ (text "e2:" <+> ppr _e2)) $ 

match_var :: MatchEnv
      	  -> SubstEnv
      	  -> Var		-- Template
      	  -> CoreExpr		-- Target
      	  -> Maybe SubstEnv
match_var menv subst@(tv_subst, id_subst, binds) v1 e2
  | v1' `elemVarSet` me_tmpls menv
  = case lookupVarEnv id_subst v1' of
	Nothing	| any (inRnEnvR rn_env) (varSetElems (exprFreeVars e2))
		-> Nothing	-- Occurs check failure
		-- e.g. match forall a. (\x-> a x) against (\y. y y)

		| otherwise	-- No renaming to do on e2, because no free var
				-- of e2 is in the rnEnvR of the envt
		-- Note [Matching variable types]
		-- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
		-- However, we must match the *types*; e.g.
		--   forall (c::Char->Int) (x::Char). 
		--	f (c x) = "RULE FIRED"
		-- We must only match on args that have the right type
		-- It's actually quite difficult to come up with an example that shows
		-- you need type matching, esp since matching is left-to-right, so type
		-- args get matched first.  But it's possible (e.g. simplrun008) and
		-- this is the Right Thing to do
		-> do	{ tv_subst' <- Unify.ruleMatchTyX menv tv_subst (idType v1') (exprType e2)
						-- c.f. match_ty below
			; return (tv_subst', extendVarEnv id_subst v1' e2, binds) }

	Just e1' | eqExpr (nukeRnEnvL rn_env) e1' e2 
		 -> Just subst

		 | otherwise
		 -> Nothing

  | otherwise	-- v1 is not a template variable; check for an exact match with e2
  = case e2 of
       Var v2 | v1' == rnOccR rn_env v2 -> Just subst
       _    				-> Nothing

    rn_env = me_env menv
    v1'    = rnOccL rn_env v1	
	-- If the template is
	--	forall x. f x (\x -> x) = ...
	-- Then the x inside the lambda isn't the 
	-- template x, so we must rename first!

match_alts :: MatchEnv
      -> SubstEnv
      -> [CoreAlt]		-- Template
      -> [CoreAlt]		-- Target
      -> Maybe SubstEnv
match_alts _ subst [] []
  = return subst
match_alts menv subst ((c1,vs1,r1):alts1) ((c2,vs2,r2):alts2)
  | c1 == c2
  = do	{ subst1 <- match menv' subst r1 r2
	; match_alts menv subst1 alts1 alts2 }
    menv' :: MatchEnv
    menv' = menv { me_env = rnBndrs2 (me_env menv) vs1 vs2 }

match_alts _ _ _ _
  = Nothing

Matching Core types: use the matcher in TcType.
Notice that we treat newtypes as opaque.  For example, suppose 
we have a specialised version of a function at a newtype, say 
	newtype T = MkT Int
We only want to replace (f T) with f', not (f Int).

match_ty :: MatchEnv
      	 -> SubstEnv
      	 -> Type		-- Template
      	 -> Type		-- Target
      	 -> Maybe SubstEnv
match_ty menv (tv_subst, id_subst, binds) ty1 ty2
  = do	{ tv_subst' <- Unify.ruleMatchTyX menv tv_subst ty1 ty2
	; return (tv_subst', id_subst, binds) }

Note [Expanding variables]
Here is another Very Important rule: if the term being matched is a
variable, we expand it so long as its unfolding is "expandable". (Its
occurrence information is not necessarily up to date, so we don't use
it.)  By "expandable" we mean a WHNF or a "constructor-like" application.
This is the key reason for "constructor-like" Ids.  If we have
     {-# NOINLINE [1] CONLIKE g #-}
     {-# RULE f (g x) = h x #-}
then in the term
   let v = g 3 in ....(f v)....
we want to make the rule fire, to replace (f v) with (h 3). 

Note [Do not expand locally-bound variables]
Do *not* expand locally-bound variables, else there's a worry that the
unfolding might mention variables that are themselves renamed.
	  case x of y { (p,q) -> ...y... }
Don't expand 'y' to (p,q) because p,q might themselves have been 
renamed.  Essentially we only expand unfoldings that are "outside" 
the entire match.

Hence, (a) the guard (not (isLocallyBoundR v2))
       (b) when we expand we nuke the renaming envt (nukeRnEnvR).

Note [Notes in RULE matching]
Look through Notes in both template and expression being matched.  In
particular, we don't want to be confused by InlineMe notes.  Maybe we
should be more careful about profiling notes, but for now I'm just
riding roughshod over them.  cf Note [Notes in call patterns] in

Note [Matching lets]
Matching a let-expression.  Consider
	RULE forall x.  f (g x) = <rhs>
and target expression
	f (let { w=R } in g E))
Then we'd like the rule to match, to generate
	let { w=R } in (\x. <rhs>) E
In effect, we want to float the let-binding outward, to enable
the match to happen.  This is the WHOLE REASON for accumulating
bindings in the SubstEnv

We can only do this if
	(a) Widening the scope of w does not capture any variables
	    We use a conservative test: w is not already in scope
	    If not, we clone the binders, and substitute
	(b) The free variables of R are not bound by the part of the
	    target expression outside the let binding; e.g.
		f (\v. let w = v+1 in g E)
	    Here we obviously cannot float the let-binding for w.

You may think rule (a) would never apply, because rule matching is
mostly invoked from the simplifier, when we have just run substExpr 
over the argument, so there will be no shadowing anyway.
The fly in the ointment is that the forall'd variables of the
RULE itself are considered in scope.

I though of various ways to solve (a).  One plan was to 
clone the binders if they are in scope.  But watch out!
	(let x=y+1 in let z=x+1 in (z,z)
		--> should match (p,p) but watch out that 
		    the use of x on z's rhs is OK!
If we clone x, then the let-binding for 'z' is then caught by (b), 
at least unless we elaborate the RnEnv stuff a bit.

So for we simply fail to match unless both (a) and (b) hold.

Other cases to think about
	(let x=y+1 in \x. (x,x))
		--> let x=y+1 in (\x1. (x1,x1))
	(\x. let x = y+1 in (x,x))
		--> let x1 = y+1 in (\x. (x1,x1)
	(let x=y+1 in (x,x), let x=y-1 in (x,x))
		--> let x=y+1 in let x1=y-1 in ((x,x),(x1,x1))

Note [Lookup in-scope]
Consider this example
	foo :: Int -> Maybe Int -> Int
	foo 0 (Just n) = n
	foo m (Just n) = foo (m-n) (Just n)

SpecConstr sees this fragment:

	case w_smT of wild_Xf [Just A] {
	  Data.Maybe.Nothing -> lvl_smf;
	  Data.Maybe.Just n_acT [Just S(L)] ->
	    case n_acT of wild1_ams [Just A] { GHC.Base.I# y_amr [Just L] ->
	    \$wfoo_smW (GHC.Prim.-# ds_Xmb y_amr) wild_Xf

and correctly generates the rule

	RULES: "SC:$wfoo1" [0] __forall {y_amr [Just L] :: GHC.Prim.Int#
					  sc_snn :: GHC.Prim.Int#}
	  \$wfoo_smW sc_snn (Data.Maybe.Just @ GHC.Base.Int (GHC.Base.I# y_amr))
	  = \$s\$wfoo_sno y_amr sc_snn ;]

BUT we must ensure that this rule matches in the original function!
Note that the call to \$wfoo is
	    \$wfoo_smW (GHC.Prim.-# ds_Xmb y_amr) wild_Xf

During matching we expand wild_Xf to (Just n_acT).  But then we must also
expand n_acT to (I# y_amr).  And we can only do that if we look up n_acT
in the in-scope set, because in wild_Xf's unfolding it won't have an unfolding
at all. 

That is why the 'lookupRnInScope' call in the (Var v2) case of 'match'
is so important.

eqExpr :: RnEnv2 -> CoreExpr -> CoreExpr -> Bool
-- ^ A kind of shallow equality used in rule matching, so does 
-- /not/ look through newtypes or predicate types

eqExpr env (Var v1) (Var v2)
  | rnOccL env v1 == rnOccR env v2
  = True

-- The next two rules expand non-local variables
-- C.f. Note [Expanding variables]
-- and  Note [Do not expand locally-bound variables]
eqExpr env (Var v1) e2
  | not (locallyBoundL env v1)
  , Just e1' <- expandId (lookupRnInScope env v1)
  = eqExpr (nukeRnEnvL env) e1' e2

eqExpr env e1 (Var v2)
  | not (locallyBoundR env v2)
  , Just e2' <- expandId (lookupRnInScope env v2)
  = eqExpr (nukeRnEnvR env) e1 e2'

eqExpr _   (Lit lit1)    (Lit lit2)    = lit1 == lit2
eqExpr env (App f1 a1)   (App f2 a2)   = eqExpr env f1 f2 && eqExpr env a1 a2
eqExpr env (Lam v1 e1)   (Lam v2 e2)   = eqExpr (rnBndr2 env v1 v2) e1 e2
eqExpr env (Note n1 e1)  (Note n2 e2)  = eq_note env n1 n2 && eqExpr env e1 e2
eqExpr env (Cast e1 co1) (Cast e2 co2) = tcEqTypeX env co1 co2 && eqExpr env e1 e2
eqExpr env (Type t1)     (Type t2)     = tcEqTypeX env t1 t2

eqExpr env (Let (NonRec v1 r1) e1)
	   (Let (NonRec v2 r2) e2) =  eqExpr env r1 r2 
				   && eqExpr (rnBndr2 env v1 v2) e1 e2
eqExpr env (Let (Rec ps1) e1)
	   (Let (Rec ps2) e2)      =  equalLength ps1 ps2
				   && and (zipWith eq_rhs ps1 ps2)
				   && eqExpr env' e1 e2
				      env' = foldl2 rn_bndr2 env ps2 ps2
				      rn_bndr2 env (b1,_) (b2,_) = rnBndr2 env b1 b2
				      eq_rhs       (_,r1) (_,r2) = eqExpr env' r1 r2
eqExpr env (Case e1 v1 t1 a1)
	   (Case e2 v2 t2 a2) =  eqExpr env e1 e2
                              && tcEqTypeX env t1 t2                      
			      && equalLength a1 a2
			      && and (zipWith (eq_alt env') a1 a2)
				env' = rnBndr2 env v1 v2

eqExpr _   _             _             = False

eq_alt :: RnEnv2 -> CoreAlt -> CoreAlt -> Bool
eq_alt env (c1,vs1,r1) (c2,vs2,r2) = c1==c2 && eqExpr (rnBndrs2 env vs1  vs2) r1 r2

eq_note :: RnEnv2 -> Note -> Note -> Bool
eq_note _ (SCC cc1)     (SCC cc2)      = cc1 == cc2
eq_note _ (CoreNote s1) (CoreNote s2)  = s1 == s2
eq_note _ (InlineMe)    (InlineMe)     = True
eq_note _ _             _              = False

Auxiliary functions

locallyBoundL, locallyBoundR :: RnEnv2 -> Var -> Bool
locallyBoundL rn_env v = inRnEnvL rn_env v
locallyBoundR rn_env v = inRnEnvR rn_env v

expandId :: Id -> Maybe CoreExpr
expandId id
  | isExpandableUnfolding unfolding = Just (unfoldingTemplate unfolding)
  | otherwise		  	    = Nothing
    unfolding = idUnfolding id

%*									*
                   Rule-check the program										
%*									*

   We want to know what sites have rules that could have fired but didn't.
   This pass runs over the tree (without changing it) and reports such.

-- | Report partial matches for rules beginning with the specified
-- string for the purposes of error reporting
ruleCheckProgram :: (Activation -> Bool)    -- ^ Rule activation test
                 -> String                      -- ^ Rule pattern
                 -> RuleBase                    -- ^ Database of rules
                 -> [CoreBind]                  -- ^ Bindings to check in
                 -> SDoc                        -- ^ Resulting check message
ruleCheckProgram is_active rule_pat rule_base binds 
  | isEmptyBag results
  = text "Rule check results: no rule application sites"
  | otherwise
  = vcat [text "Rule check results:",
	  vcat [ p $$ line | p <- bagToList results ]
    results = unionManyBags (map (ruleCheckBind (RuleCheckEnv is_active rule_pat rule_base)) binds)
    line = text (replicate 20 '-')
data RuleCheckEnv = RuleCheckEnv {
    rc_is_active :: Activation -> Bool, 
    rc_pattern :: String, 
    rc_rule_base :: RuleBase

ruleCheckBind :: RuleCheckEnv -> CoreBind -> Bag SDoc
   -- The Bag returned has one SDoc for each call site found
ruleCheckBind env (NonRec _ r) = ruleCheck env r
ruleCheckBind env (Rec prs)    = unionManyBags [ruleCheck env r | (_,r) <- prs]

ruleCheck :: RuleCheckEnv -> CoreExpr -> Bag SDoc
ruleCheck _   (Var _) 	    = emptyBag
ruleCheck _   (Lit _) 	    = emptyBag
ruleCheck _   (Type _)      = emptyBag
ruleCheck env (App f a)     = ruleCheckApp env (App f a) []
ruleCheck env (Note _ e)    = ruleCheck env e
ruleCheck env (Cast e _)    = ruleCheck env e
ruleCheck env (Let bd e)    = ruleCheckBind env bd `unionBags` ruleCheck env e
ruleCheck env (Lam _ e)     = ruleCheck env e
ruleCheck env (Case e _ _ as) = ruleCheck env e `unionBags` 
			        unionManyBags [ruleCheck env r | (_,_,r) <- as]

ruleCheckApp :: RuleCheckEnv -> Expr CoreBndr -> [Arg CoreBndr] -> Bag SDoc
ruleCheckApp env (App f a) as = ruleCheck env a `unionBags` ruleCheckApp env f (a:as)
ruleCheckApp env (Var f) as   = ruleCheckFun env f as
ruleCheckApp env other _      = ruleCheck env other

ruleCheckFun :: RuleCheckEnv -> Id -> [CoreExpr] -> Bag SDoc
-- Produce a report for all rules matching the predicate
-- saying why it doesn't match the specified application

ruleCheckFun env fn args
  | null name_match_rules = emptyBag
  | otherwise		  = unitBag (ruleAppCheck_help (rc_is_active env) fn args name_match_rules)
    name_match_rules = filter match (getRules (rc_rule_base env) fn)
    match rule = (rc_pattern env) `isPrefixOf` unpackFS (ruleName rule)

ruleAppCheck_help :: (Activation -> Bool) -> Id -> [CoreExpr] -> [CoreRule] -> SDoc
ruleAppCheck_help is_active fn args rules
  = 	-- The rules match the pattern, so we want to print something
    vcat [text "Expression:" <+> ppr (mkApps (Var fn) args),
	  vcat (map check_rule rules)]
    n_args = length args
    i_args = args `zip` [1::Int ..]
    rough_args = map roughTopName args

    check_rule rule = rule_herald rule <> colon <+> rule_info rule

    rule_herald (BuiltinRule { ru_name = name })
	= ptext (sLit "Builtin rule") <+> doubleQuotes (ftext name)
    rule_herald (Rule { ru_name = name })
	= ptext (sLit "Rule") <+> doubleQuotes (ftext name)

    rule_info rule
	| Just _ <- matchRule noBlackList emptyInScopeSet args rough_args rule
	= text "matches (which is very peculiar!)"

    rule_info (BuiltinRule {}) = text "does not match"

    rule_info (Rule { ru_act = act, 
		      ru_bndrs = rule_bndrs, ru_args = rule_args})
	| not (is_active act)    = text "active only in later phase"
	| n_args < n_rule_args	      = text "too few arguments"
	| n_mismatches == n_rule_args = text "no arguments match"
	| n_mismatches == 0	      = text "all arguments match (considered individually), but rule as a whole does not"
	| otherwise		      = text "arguments" <+> ppr mismatches <+> text "do not match (1-indexing)"
	  n_rule_args  = length rule_args
	  n_mismatches = length mismatches
	  mismatches   = [i | (rule_arg, (arg,i)) <- rule_args `zip` i_args,
			      not (isJust (match_fn rule_arg arg))]

	  lhs_fvs = exprsFreeVars rule_args	-- Includes template tyvars
	  match_fn rule_arg arg = match menv emptySubstEnv rule_arg arg
		  in_scope = lhs_fvs `unionVarSet` exprFreeVars arg
		  menv = ME { me_env   = mkRnEnv2 (mkInScopeSet in_scope)
			    , me_tmpls = mkVarSet rule_bndrs }