This section has the answers to questions that get asked regularly on the GHC mailing lists, in no particular order. Please let us know if you think there's a question/answer that should be added here.
There are two distinct possibilities: either
The hardware architecture for your system is already supported by GHC, but you're running an OS that isn't supported (or perhaps has been supported in the past, but currently isn't). This is the easiest type of porting job, but it still requires some careful bootstrapping.
Your system's hardware architecture isn't supported by GHC. This will be a more difficult port (though by comparison perhaps not as difficult as porting gcc).
Both ways require you to bootstrap from intermediate
HC files: these are the stylised C files
generated by GHC when it compiles Haskell source. Basically
the idea is to take the HC files for GHC itself to the target
machine and compile them with
gcc to get a
working GHC, and go from there.
The Building Guide has all the details on how to bootstrap GHC on a new platform.
Yes. There are two reasons for this:
GHC does a lot of cross-module optimisation, so compiled code will include parts of the libraries it was compiled against (including the Prelude), so will be deeply tied to the actual version of those libraries it was compiled against. When you upgrade GHC, the libraries may change; even if the external interface of the libraries doesn't change, sometimes internal details may change because GHC optimised the code in the library differently.
We sometimes change the ABI (application binary interface) between versions of GHC. Code compiled with one version of GHC is not necessarily compatible with code compiled by a different version, even if you arrange to keep the same libraries.
The subject of shared libraries has come up several times in the past — take a look through the mailing-list archives for some of the previous discussions. The upshot is that shared libraries wouldn't really buy much unless you really need to save the disk space: in all other considerations, static linking comes out better.
Unfortunately GHC-compiled libraries are very tightly coupled, which means it's unlikely you'd be able to swap out a shared library for a newer version unless it was compiled with exactly the same compiler and set of libraries as the old version.
If you're also using CPP, beware of the known pitfall with string gaps mentioned in Section 188.8.131.52, “CPP and string gaps”.
CC_LISTwhen loading a previously compiled .o file.
This probably means the .o files in question were
compiled for profiling (with
recompile them without profiling. We really ought to detect
this situation and give a proper error message.
/usr/bin/ld: cannot open -lgmp: No such file or directory
The problem is that your system doesn't have the GMP
library installed. If this is a RedHat distribution, install
gmp-devel package, and
gmp package if you don't already have
it. There have been reports that installing the RedHat
packages also works for SuSE (SuSE don't supply a shared gmp
The "correct" fix for this problem is to install the
correct RPM for the particular flavour of Linux on your
machine. If this isn't an option, however, there is a hack
that might work: make a symbolic link from
/usr/lib. We tried this on a SuSE 7.1 box
and it seemed to work, but YMMV.
We suggest you try linking in some combination of the
ncurses libraries, by giving
-lncurses respectively. If you encounter
this problem, we would appreciate feedback on it, since we
don't fully understand what's going on here.
It has been reported that if you have multiple versions of the readline library installed on Linux, then this may cause the build to fail. If you have multiple versions of readline, try uninstalling all except the most recent version.
ghc-5.02: not built for interactive use
To build a working ghci, you need to build GHC 5.02 with itself; the above message appears if you build it with 4.08.X, for example. It'll still work fine for batch-mode compilation, though. Note that you really must build with exactly the same version of the compiler. Building 5.02 with 5.00.2, for example, may or may not give a working interactive system; it probably won't, and certainly isn't supported. Note also that you can build 5.02 with any older compiler, back to 4.08.1, if you don't want a working interactive system; that's OK, and supported.
You should use the
-#include option to
bring the correct prototype into scope (see Section 4.10.5, “Options affecting the C compiler (if applicable)”).
For utterly horrible reasons, programs that use more than 128Mb of heap won't work when compiled dynamically on Windows (they should be fine statically compiled).
Indeed not. You could change
This is a consequence of the fact that GHC opens the
FIFO in non-blocking mode. The behaviour varies from OS to
OS: on Linux and Solaris you can wait for a writer by doing an
threadWaitRead on the file
descriptor (gotten from
before the first read, but this doesn't work on FreeBSD
(although rumour has it that recent versions of FreeBSD
changed the behaviour to match other OSs). A workaround for
all systems is to open the FIFO for writing yourself, before
(or at the same time as) opening it for reading.
foreign importa function that returns
short, I get garbage back.
This is a known bug in GHC versions prior to 5.02.2. GHC doesn't mask out the more significant bits of the result. It doesn't manifest with gcc 2.95, but apparently shows up with g++ and gcc 3.0.
head , or an array bounds error, or some other random error, and I have no idea how to find the bug. Can you help?
Compile your program with
-auto-all (make sure you have the profiling libraries
installed), and run it with
+RTS -xc -RTS to get a
“stack trace” at the point at which the exception was
raised. See Section 4.14.4, “RTS options for hackers, debuggers, and over-interested
souls” for more
-parallel, and GHC complains with an error like “failed to load interface file for Prelude”.
GHC doesn't ship with support for parallel execution, that support is provided separately by the GPH project.
We'll give two answers to this question, each of which
may be helpful. These criteria are not rigorous in any real
sense (you'd need a formal semantics for Haskell in order to
give a proper answer to this question), but should give you a
feel for the kind of things you can and cannot do with
It is safe to implement a function or API using
unsafePerformIO if you could imagine
also implementing the same function or API in Haskell
about efficiency, just consider the semantics).
In pure Haskell, the value of a function depends
only on the values of its arguments (and free variables,
if it has any). If you can implement the function using
unsafePerformIO and still retain this
invariant, then you're probably using
unsafePerformIO in a safe way. Note
that you need only consider the
observable values of the arguments
For more information, see this thread.
Linking a small program should take no more than a few seconds. Larger programs can take longer, but even linking GHC itself only takes 3-4 seconds on our development machines.
Long link times have been attributed to using Sun's linker on Solaris, as compared to GNU ld which appears to be much faster. So if you're on a Sun box, try switching to GNU ld. This article from the mailing list has more information.
This is a consequence of Unixy terminal semantics. Unix does line buffering on terminals in the kernel as part of the terminal processing, unless you turn it off. However, the Ctrl-D processing is also part of the terminal processing which gets turned off when the kernel line buffering is disabled. So GHC tries its best to get NoBuffering semantics by turning off the kernel line buffering, but as a result you lose Ctrl-D. C'est la vie.
putStr, and then attempt to read some input using
hGetLine, I don't see the output from the
stdout handle is line-buffered by
default, which means that output sent to the handle is only
flushed when a newline (
/n) is output, the
buffer is full, or
hFlush is called on the
Handle. The right way to make the text appear without sending
a newline is to use
import System.IO main = do putStr "how are you today? " hFlush stdout input &- hGetLine ...
You'll probably find that the behaviour differs when
using GHCi: the
hFlush isn't necessary to
make the text appear. This is because in GHCi we turn off the
stdout, because this is
normally what you want in an interpreter: output appears as it
Chances are that your program is trying to write a
stderr in the finalizer. Handles have
finalizers themselves, and since finalizers don't keep other
finalized values alive, the
stderr Handles may be finalized before your
finalizer runs. If this happens, your finalizer will block on
the handle, and probably end up receiving a
NonTermination exception (which is printed
No, extensible records are not implemented in GHC. Hugs implements TRex, one extensible record variant. The problem is that the record design space is large, and seems to lack local optima. And all reasonable variants break backward compatibility. As a result, nothing much happens.
Certain options, such as
-O, turn on
via-C compilation, instead of using the native code generator.
Include files named by
foreign import declarations are only
used in via-C compilation mode. See Section 184.108.40.206, “Finding Header files” for more details.
hifiles I've already built?
You can select alternative suffixes for object files and interface files, so you can have several builds of the same code coexisting in the same directory. For example, to compile with profiling, you might do this:
ghc --make -prof -o foo-prof -osuf p.o -hisuf p.hi Main
See Section 4.6.4, “Redirecting the compilation output(s)” for more details on
In order to load the readline package under GHCi on Windows, you need to make a version of the readline library that GHCi can load. Instructions for GHC 6.2.2. are here.
When running GHC under a Cygwin shell on Windows, Ctrl-C sometimes doesn't work. The workaround is to use Ctrl-Break instead.
An error message like this:
GHCi runtime linker: fatal error: I found a duplicate definition for symbol __module_registered whilst processing object file /usr/local/lib/ghc-6.2/HSfgl.o
probably indicates that when building a library for GHCi
HSfgl.o in the above example), you should use
-x option to