7.8. Kind polymorphism and promotion

Standard Haskell has a rich type language. Types classify terms and serve to avoid many common programming mistakes. The kind language, however, is relatively simple, distinguishing only lifted types (kind *), type constructors (eg. kind * -> * -> *), and unlifted types (Section 7.2.1, “Unboxed types ”). In particular when using advanced type system features, such as type families (Section 7.7, “Type families”) or GADTs (Section 7.4.7, “Generalised Algebraic Data Types (GADTs)”), this simple kind system is insufficient, and fails to prevent simple errors. Consider the example of type-level natural numbers, and length-indexed vectors:

data Ze
data Su n

data Vec :: * -> * -> * where
  Nil  :: Vec a Ze
  Cons :: a -> Vec a n -> Vec a (Su n)

The kind of Vec is * -> * -> *. This means that eg. Vec Int Char is a well-kinded type, even though this is not what we intend when defining length-indexed vectors.

With the flags -XPolyKinds and -XDataKinds, users get access to a richer kind language. -XPolyKinds enables kind polymorphism, while -XDataKinds enables user defined kinds through datatype promotion. With -XDataKinds, the example above can then be rewritten to:

data Nat = Ze | Su Nat

data Vec :: * -> Nat -> * where
  Nil  :: Vec a Ze
  Cons :: a -> Vec a n -> Vec a (Su n)

With the improved kind of Vec, things like Vec Int Char are now ill-kinded, and GHC will report an error.

In this section we show a few examples of how to make use of the new kind system. This extension is described in more detail in the paper Giving Haskell a Promotion, which appeared at TLDI 2012.

7.8.1. Kind polymorphism

Currently there is a lot of code duplication in the way Typeable is implemented (Section 7.5.3, “Deriving clause for extra classes (Typeable, Data, etc)”):

class Typeable (t :: *) where
  typeOf :: t -> TypeRep

class Typeable1 (t :: * -> *) where
  typeOf1 :: t a -> TypeRep

class Typeable2 (t :: * -> * -> *) where
  typeOf2 :: t a b -> TypeRep

Kind polymorphism (with -XPolyKinds) allows us to merge all these classes into one:

data Proxy t = Proxy

class Typeable t where
  typeOf :: Proxy t -> TypeRep

instance Typeable Int  where typeOf _ = TypeRep
instance Typeable []   where typeOf _ = TypeRep

Note that the datatype Proxy has kind forall k. k -> * (inferred by GHC), and the new Typeable class has kind forall k. k -> Constraint.

There are some restrictions in the current implementation:

  • You cannot (yet) explicitly abstract over kinds, or mention kind variables. So the following are all rejected:

    data D1 (t :: k)
    data D2 :: k -> *
    data D3 (k :: BOX)
  • The return kind of a type family is always defaulted to *. So the following is rejected:

    type family F a
    type instance F Int = Maybe

7.8.2. Datatype promotion

With -XDataKinds, GHC automatically promotes every suitable datatype to be a kind, and its (value) constructors to be type constructors. The following types

data Nat = Ze | Su Nat

data List a = Nil | Cons a (List a)

data Pair a b = Pair a b
data Sum a b = L a | R b

give rise to the following kinds and type constructors:

Nat :: BOX
Ze :: Nat
Su :: Nat -> Nat

List k :: BOX
Nil  :: List k
Cons :: k -> List k -> List k

Pair k1 k2 :: BOX
Pair :: k1 -> k2 -> Pair k1 k2

Sum k1 k2 :: BOX
L :: k1 -> Sum k1 k2
R :: k2 -> Sum k1 k2

Note that List, for instance, does not get kind BOX -> BOX, because we do not further classify kinds; all kinds have sort BOX.

The following restrictions apply to promotion:

  • We only promote datatypes whose kinds are of the form * -> ... -> * -> *. In particular, we do not promote higher-kinded datatypes such as data Fix f = In (f (Fix f)), or datatypes whose kinds involve promoted types such as Vec :: * -> Nat -> *.

  • We do not promote datatypes whose constructors are kind polymorphic, involve constraints, or use existential quantification. Distinguishing between types and constructors

Since constructors and types share the same namespace, with promotion you can get ambiguous type names:

data P          -- 1

data Prom = P   -- 2

type T = P      -- 1 or promoted 2?

In these cases, if you want to refer to the promoted constructor, you should prefix its name with a quote:

type T1 = P     -- 1

type T2 = 'P    -- promoted 2

Note that promoted datatypes give rise to named kinds. Since these can never be ambiguous, we do not allow quotes in kind names. Promoted lists and tuples types

Haskell's list and tuple types are natively promoted to kinds, and enjoy the same convenient syntax at the type level, albeit prefixed with a quote:

data HList :: [*] -> * where
  HNil  :: HList '[]
  HCons :: a -> HList t -> HList (a ': t)

data Tuple :: (*,*) -> * where
  Tuple :: a -> b -> Tuple '(a,b)

Note that this requires -XTypeOperators.

7.8.3. Shortcomings of the current implementation

For the release on GHC 7.4 we focused on getting the new kind-polymorphic core to work with all existing programs (which do not make use of kind polymorphism). Many things already work properly with -XPolyKinds, but we expect that some things will not work. If you run into trouble, please report a bug!