% % (c) The AQUA Project, Glasgow University, 1994-1998 % \section[LiberateCase]{Unroll recursion to allow evals to be lifted from a loop} \begin{code}
{-# OPTIONS -fno-warn-tabs #-}
-- The above warning supression flag is a temporary kludge.
-- While working on this module you are encouraged to remove it and
-- detab the module (please do the detabbing in a separate patch). See
--     http://hackage.haskell.org/trac/ghc/wiki/Commentary/CodingStyle#TabsvsSpaces
-- for details

module LiberateCase ( liberateCase ) where

#include "HsVersions.h"

import DynFlags
import CoreSyn
import CoreUnfold	( couldBeSmallEnoughToInline )
import Id
import VarEnv
import Util             ( notNull )
\end{code} The liberate-case transformation ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This module walks over @Core@, and looks for @case@ on free variables. The criterion is: if there is case on a free on the route to the recursive call, then the recursive call is replaced with an unfolding. Example f = \ t -> case v of V a b -> a : f t => the inner f is replaced. f = \ t -> case v of V a b -> a : (letrec f = \ t -> case v of V a b -> a : f t in f) t (note the NEED for shadowing) => Simplify f = \ t -> case v of V a b -> a : (letrec f = \ t -> a : f t in f t) Better code, because 'a' is free inside the inner letrec, rather than needing projection from v. Note that this deals with *free variables*. SpecConstr deals with *arguments* that are of known form. E.g. last [] = error last (x:[]) = x last (x:xs) = last xs Note [Scrutinee with cast] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Consider this: f = \ t -> case (v `cast` co) of V a b -> a : f t Exactly the same optimisation (unrolling one call to f) will work here, despite the cast. See mk_alt_env in the Case branch of libCase. Note [Only functions!] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Consider the following code f = g (case v of V a b -> a : t f) where g is expensive. If we aren't careful, liberate case will turn this into f = g (case v of V a b -> a : t (letrec f = g (case v of V a b -> a : f t) in f) ) Yikes! We evaluate g twice. This leads to a O(2^n) explosion if g calls back to the same code recursively. Solution: make sure that we only do the liberate-case thing on *functions* To think about (Apr 94) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Main worry: duplicating code excessively. At the moment we duplicate the entire binding group once at each recursive call. But there may be a group of recursive calls which share a common set of evaluated free variables, in which case the duplication is a plain waste. Another thing we could consider adding is some unfold-threshold thing, so that we'll only duplicate if the size of the group rhss isn't too big. Data types ~~~~~~~~~~ The ``level'' of a binder tells how many recursive defns lexically enclose the binding A recursive defn "encloses" its RHS, not its scope. For example: \begin{verbatim} letrec f = let g = ... in ... in let h = ... in ... \end{verbatim} Here, the level of @f@ is zero, the level of @g@ is one, and the level of @h@ is zero (NB not one). %************************************************************************ %* * Top-level code %* * %************************************************************************ \begin{code}
liberateCase :: DynFlags -> CoreProgram -> CoreProgram
liberateCase dflags binds = do_prog (initEnv dflags) binds
    do_prog _   [] = []
    do_prog env (bind:binds) = bind' : do_prog env' binds
			       (env', bind') = libCaseBind env bind
\end{code} %************************************************************************ %* * Main payload %* * %************************************************************************ Bindings ~~~~~~~~ \begin{code}
libCaseBind :: LibCaseEnv -> CoreBind -> (LibCaseEnv, CoreBind)

libCaseBind env (NonRec binder rhs)
  = (addBinders env [binder], NonRec binder (libCase env rhs))

libCaseBind env (Rec pairs)
  = (env_body, Rec pairs')
    binders = map fst pairs

    env_body = addBinders env binders

    pairs' = [(binder, libCase env_rhs rhs) | (binder,rhs) <- pairs]

	-- We extend the rec-env by binding each Id to its rhs, first
	-- processing the rhs with an *un-extended* environment, so
	-- that the same process doesn't occur for ever!
    env_rhs = addRecBinds env [ (localiseId binder, libCase env_body rhs)
			      | (binder, rhs) <- pairs
 			      , rhs_small_enough binder rhs ]
	-- localiseID : see Note [Need to localiseId in libCaseBind]

    rhs_small_enough id rhs	-- Note [Small enough]
	=  idArity id > 0	-- Note [Only functions!]
	&& maybe True (\size -> couldBeSmallEnoughToInline size rhs)
                      (bombOutSize env)
\end{code} Note [Need to localiseId in libCaseBind] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The call to localiseId is needed for two subtle reasons (a) Reset the export flags on the binders so that we don't get name clashes on exported things if the local binding floats out to top level. This is most unlikely to happen, since the whole point concerns free variables. But resetting the export flag is right regardless. (b) Make the name an Internal one. External Names should never be nested; if it were floated to the top level, we'd get a name clash at code generation time. Note [Small enough] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Consider \fv. letrec f = \x. BIG...(case fv of { (a,b) -> ...g.. })... g = \y. SMALL...f... Then we *can* do liberate-case on g (small RHS) but not for f (too big). But we can choose on a item-by-item basis, and that's what the rhs_small_enough call in the comprehension for env_rhs does. Expressions ~~~~~~~~~~~ \begin{code}
libCase :: LibCaseEnv
	-> CoreExpr
	-> CoreExpr

libCase env (Var v)             = libCaseId env v
libCase _   (Lit lit)           = Lit lit
libCase _   (Type ty)           = Type ty
libCase _   (Coercion co)       = Coercion co
libCase env (App fun arg)       = App (libCase env fun) (libCase env arg)
libCase env (Tick tickish body) = Tick tickish (libCase env body)
libCase env (Cast e co)         = Cast (libCase env e) co

libCase env (Lam binder body)
  = Lam binder (libCase (addBinders env [binder]) body)

libCase env (Let bind body)
  = Let bind' (libCase env_body body)
    (env_body, bind') = libCaseBind env bind

libCase env (Case scrut bndr ty alts)
  = Case (libCase env scrut) bndr ty (map (libCaseAlt env_alts) alts)
    env_alts = addBinders (mk_alt_env scrut) [bndr]
    mk_alt_env (Var scrut_var) = addScrutedVar env scrut_var
    mk_alt_env (Cast scrut _)  = mk_alt_env scrut	-- Note [Scrutinee with cast]
    mk_alt_env _    	       = env

libCaseAlt :: LibCaseEnv -> (AltCon, [CoreBndr], CoreExpr)
                         -> (AltCon, [CoreBndr], CoreExpr)
libCaseAlt env (con,args,rhs) = (con, args, libCase (addBinders env args) rhs)
\end{code} Ids ~~~ \begin{code}
libCaseId :: LibCaseEnv -> Id -> CoreExpr
libCaseId env v
  | Just the_bind <- lookupRecId env v	-- It's a use of a recursive thing
  , notNull free_scruts 		-- with free vars scrutinised in RHS
  = Let the_bind (Var v)

  | otherwise
  = Var v

    rec_id_level = lookupLevel env v
    free_scruts  = freeScruts env rec_id_level

freeScruts :: LibCaseEnv
	   -> LibCaseLevel 	-- Level of the recursive Id
	   -> [Id]		-- Ids that are scrutinised between the binding
				-- of the recursive Id and here
freeScruts env rec_bind_lvl
  = [v | (v, scrut_bind_lvl, scrut_at_lvl) <- lc_scruts env
       , scrut_bind_lvl <= rec_bind_lvl
       , scrut_at_lvl > rec_bind_lvl]
	-- Note [When to specialise]
	-- Note [Avoiding fruitless liberate-case]
\end{code} Note [When to specialise] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Consider f = \x. letrec g = \y. case x of True -> ... (f a) ... False -> ... (g b) ... We get the following levels f 0 x 1 g 1 y 2 Then 'x' is being scrutinised at a deeper level than its binding, so it's added to lc_sruts: [(x,1)] We do *not* want to specialise the call to 'f', becuase 'x' is not free in 'f'. So here the bind-level of 'x' (=1) is not <= the bind-level of 'f' (=0). We *do* want to specialise the call to 'g', because 'x' is free in g. Here the bind-level of 'x' (=1) is <= the bind-level of 'g' (=1). Note [Avoiding fruitless liberate-case] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Consider also: f = \x. case top_lvl_thing of I# _ -> let g = \y. ... g ... in ... Here, top_lvl_thing is scrutinised at a level (1) deeper than its binding site (0). Nevertheless, we do NOT want to specialise the call to 'g' because all the structure in its free variables is already visible at the definition site for g. Hence, when considering specialising an occurrence of 'g', we want to check that there's a scruted-var v st a) v's binding site is *outside* g b) v's scrutinisation site is *inside* g %************************************************************************ %* * Utility functions %* * %************************************************************************ \begin{code}
addBinders :: LibCaseEnv -> [CoreBndr] -> LibCaseEnv
addBinders env@(LibCaseEnv { lc_lvl = lvl, lc_lvl_env = lvl_env }) binders
  = env { lc_lvl_env = lvl_env' }
    lvl_env' = extendVarEnvList lvl_env (binders `zip` repeat lvl)

addRecBinds :: LibCaseEnv -> [(Id,CoreExpr)] -> LibCaseEnv
addRecBinds env@(LibCaseEnv {lc_lvl = lvl, lc_lvl_env = lvl_env, 
			     lc_rec_env = rec_env}) pairs
  = env { lc_lvl = lvl', lc_lvl_env = lvl_env', lc_rec_env = rec_env' }
    lvl'     = lvl + 1
    lvl_env' = extendVarEnvList lvl_env [(binder,lvl) | (binder,_) <- pairs]
    rec_env' = extendVarEnvList rec_env [(binder, Rec pairs) | (binder,_) <- pairs]

addScrutedVar :: LibCaseEnv
	      -> Id		-- This Id is being scrutinised by a case expression
	      -> LibCaseEnv

addScrutedVar env@(LibCaseEnv { lc_lvl = lvl, lc_lvl_env = lvl_env, 
				lc_scruts = scruts }) scrut_var
  | bind_lvl < lvl
  = env { lc_scruts = scruts' }
	-- Add to scruts iff the scrut_var is being scrutinised at
	-- a deeper level than its defn

  | otherwise = env
    scruts'  = (scrut_var, bind_lvl, lvl) : scruts
    bind_lvl = case lookupVarEnv lvl_env scrut_var of
		 Just lvl -> lvl
		 Nothing  -> topLevel

lookupRecId :: LibCaseEnv -> Id -> Maybe CoreBind
lookupRecId env id = lookupVarEnv (lc_rec_env env) id

lookupLevel :: LibCaseEnv -> Id -> LibCaseLevel
lookupLevel env id
  = case lookupVarEnv (lc_lvl_env env) id of
      Just lvl -> lvl
      Nothing  -> topLevel
\end{code} %************************************************************************ %* * The environment %* * %************************************************************************ \begin{code}
type LibCaseLevel = Int

topLevel :: LibCaseLevel
topLevel = 0
\end{code} \begin{code}
data LibCaseEnv
  = LibCaseEnv {
	lc_size :: Maybe Int,	-- Bomb-out size for deciding if
				-- potential liberatees are too big.
				-- (passed in from cmd-line args)

	lc_lvl :: LibCaseLevel,	-- Current level
		-- The level is incremented when (and only when) going
		-- inside the RHS of a (sufficiently small) recursive
		-- function.

	lc_lvl_env :: IdEnv LibCaseLevel,  
		-- Binds all non-top-level in-scope Ids (top-level and
		-- imported things have a level of zero)

	lc_rec_env :: IdEnv CoreBind, 
		-- Binds *only* recursively defined ids, to their own
		-- binding group, and *only* in their own RHSs

	lc_scruts :: [(Id, LibCaseLevel, LibCaseLevel)]
     		-- Each of these Ids was scrutinised by an enclosing
		-- case expression, at a level deeper than its binding
		-- level.
 		-- The first LibCaseLevel is the *binding level* of
 		--   the scrutinised Id, 
		-- The second is the level *at which it was scrutinised*.
		--   (see Note [Avoiding fruitless liberate-case])
		-- The former is a bit redundant, since you could always
		-- look it up in lc_lvl_env, but it's just cached here
		-- The order is insignificant; it's a bag really
		-- There's one element per scrutinisation;
		--    in principle the same Id may appear multiple times,
		--    although that'd be unusual:
		--       case x of { (a,b) -> ....(case x of ...) .. }

initEnv :: DynFlags -> LibCaseEnv
initEnv dflags 
  = LibCaseEnv { lc_size = liberateCaseThreshold dflags,
		 lc_lvl = 0,
		 lc_lvl_env = emptyVarEnv, 
		 lc_rec_env = emptyVarEnv,
		 lc_scruts = [] }

bombOutSize :: LibCaseEnv -> Maybe Int
bombOutSize = lc_size