6.4.15. Type-Level Literals

GHC supports numeric, string, and character literals at the type level, giving convenient access to a large number of predefined type-level constants. Numeric literals are of kind Natural, string literals are of kind Symbol, and character literals are of kind Char. This feature is enabled by the DataKinds language extension.

The kinds of the literals and all other low-level operations for this feature are defined in modules GHC.TypeLits and GHC.TypeNats. Note that these modules define some type-level operators that clash with their value-level counterparts (e.g. (+)). Import and export declarations referring to these operators require an explicit namespace annotation (see Explicit namespaces in import/export).

Here is an example of using type-level numeric literals to provide a safe interface to a low-level function:

import GHC.TypeLits
import Data.Word
import Foreign

newtype ArrPtr (n :: Natural) a = ArrPtr (Ptr a)

clearPage :: ArrPtr 4096 Word8 -> IO ()
clearPage (ArrPtr p) = ...

Also type-level naturals could be promoted from the Natural data type using DataKinds, for example:

data Point = MkPoint Natural Natural
type MyCoordinates = MkPoint 95 101

Here is an example of using type-level string literals to simulate simple record operations:

data Label (l :: Symbol) = Get

class Has a l b | a l -> b where
  from :: a -> Label l -> b

data Point = Point Int Int deriving Show

instance Has Point "x" Int where from (Point x _) _ = x
instance Has Point "y" Int where from (Point _ y) _ = y

example = from (Point 1 2) (Get :: Label "x") Runtime Values for Type-Level Literals

Sometimes it is useful to access the value-level literal associated with a type-level literal. This is done with the functions natVal and symbolVal. For example:

GHC.TypeLits> natVal (Proxy :: Proxy 2)

These functions are overloaded because they need to return a different result, depending on the type at which they are instantiated.

natVal :: KnownNat n => proxy n -> Natural  -- from GHC.TypeNats
natVal :: KnownNat n => proxy n -> Integer  -- from GHC.TypeLits

-- instance KnownNat 0
-- instance KnownNat 1
-- instance KnownNat 2
-- ...

GHC discharges the constraint as soon as it knows what concrete type-level literal is being used in the program. Note that this works only for literals and not arbitrary type expressions. For example, a constraint of the form KnownNat (a + b) will not be simplified to (KnownNat a, KnownNat b); instead, GHC will keep the constraint as is, until it can simplify a + b to a constant value.

It is also possible to convert a run-time integer or string value to the corresponding type-level literal. Of course, the resulting type literal will be unknown at compile-time, so it is hidden in an existential type. The conversion may be performed using someNatVal for integers and someSymbolVal for strings:

someNatVal :: Natural -> Maybe SomeNat  -- from GHC.TypeNats
someNatVal :: Integer -> Maybe SomeNat  -- from GHC.TypeLits

SomeNat    :: KnownNat n => Proxy n -> SomeNat

The operations on strings are similar. Computing With Type-Level Naturals

GHC 7.8 can evaluate arithmetic expressions involving type-level natural numbers. Such expressions may be constructed using the type-families (+), (*), (^) for addition, multiplication, and exponentiation. Numbers may be compared using (<=?), which returns a promoted boolean value, or (<=), which compares numbers as a constraint. For example:

GHC.TypeLits> natVal (Proxy :: Proxy (2 + 3))

At present, GHC is quite limited in its reasoning about arithmetic: it will only evaluate the arithmetic type functions and compare the results— in the same way that it does for any other type function. In particular, it does not know more general facts about arithmetic, such as the commutativity and associativity of (+), for example.

However, it is possible to perform a bit of “backwards” evaluation. For example, here is how we could get GHC to compute arbitrary logarithms at the type level:

lg :: Proxy base -> Proxy (base ^ pow) -> Proxy pow
lg _ _ = Proxy

GHC.TypeLits> natVal (lg (Proxy :: Proxy 2) (Proxy :: Proxy 8))