Copyright | (c) Ross Paterson 2005 (c) Louis Wasserman 2009 |
---|---|

License | BSD-style |

Maintainer | libraries@haskell.org |

Stability | experimental |

Portability | portable |

Safe Haskell | Trustworthy |

Language | Haskell98 |

General purpose finite sequences. Apart from being finite and having strict operations, sequences also differ from lists in supporting a wider variety of operations efficiently.

An amortized running time is given for each operation, with *n* referring
to the length of the sequence and *i* being the integral index used by
some operations. These bounds hold even in a persistent (shared) setting.

The implementation uses 2-3 finger trees annotated with sizes, as described in section 4.2 of

- Ralf Hinze and Ross Paterson,
"Finger trees: a simple general-purpose data structure",
*Journal of Functional Programming*16:2 (2006) pp 197-217. http://www.soi.city.ac.uk/~ross/papers/FingerTree.html

*Note*: Many of these operations have the same names as similar
operations on lists in the Prelude. The ambiguity may be resolved
using either qualification or the `hiding`

clause.

- data Seq a
- empty :: Seq a
- singleton :: a -> Seq a
- (<|) :: a -> Seq a -> Seq a
- (|>) :: Seq a -> a -> Seq a
- (><) :: Seq a -> Seq a -> Seq a
- fromList :: [a] -> Seq a
- replicate :: Int -> a -> Seq a
- replicateA :: Applicative f => Int -> f a -> f (Seq a)
- replicateM :: Monad m => Int -> m a -> m (Seq a)
- iterateN :: Int -> (a -> a) -> a -> Seq a
- unfoldr :: (b -> Maybe (a, b)) -> b -> Seq a
- unfoldl :: (b -> Maybe (b, a)) -> b -> Seq a
- null :: Seq a -> Bool
- length :: Seq a -> Int
- data ViewL a
- viewl :: Seq a -> ViewL a
- data ViewR a
- viewr :: Seq a -> ViewR a
- scanl :: (a -> b -> a) -> a -> Seq b -> Seq a
- scanl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Seq a -> Seq a
- scanr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Seq a -> Seq b
- scanr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Seq a -> Seq a
- tails :: Seq a -> Seq (Seq a)
- inits :: Seq a -> Seq (Seq a)
- takeWhileL :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Seq a
- takeWhileR :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Seq a
- dropWhileL :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Seq a
- dropWhileR :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Seq a
- spanl :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> (Seq a, Seq a)
- spanr :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> (Seq a, Seq a)
- breakl :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> (Seq a, Seq a)
- breakr :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> (Seq a, Seq a)
- partition :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> (Seq a, Seq a)
- filter :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Seq a
- sort :: Ord a => Seq a -> Seq a
- sortBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> Seq a -> Seq a
- unstableSort :: Ord a => Seq a -> Seq a
- unstableSortBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> Seq a -> Seq a
- index :: Seq a -> Int -> a
- adjust :: (a -> a) -> Int -> Seq a -> Seq a
- update :: Int -> a -> Seq a -> Seq a
- take :: Int -> Seq a -> Seq a
- drop :: Int -> Seq a -> Seq a
- splitAt :: Int -> Seq a -> (Seq a, Seq a)
- elemIndexL :: Eq a => a -> Seq a -> Maybe Int
- elemIndicesL :: Eq a => a -> Seq a -> [Int]
- elemIndexR :: Eq a => a -> Seq a -> Maybe Int
- elemIndicesR :: Eq a => a -> Seq a -> [Int]
- findIndexL :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Maybe Int
- findIndicesL :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> [Int]
- findIndexR :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Maybe Int
- findIndicesR :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> [Int]
- foldlWithIndex :: (b -> Int -> a -> b) -> b -> Seq a -> b
- foldrWithIndex :: (Int -> a -> b -> b) -> b -> Seq a -> b
- mapWithIndex :: (Int -> a -> b) -> Seq a -> Seq b
- reverse :: Seq a -> Seq a
- zip :: Seq a -> Seq b -> Seq (a, b)
- zipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> Seq a -> Seq b -> Seq c
- zip3 :: Seq a -> Seq b -> Seq c -> Seq (a, b, c)
- zipWith3 :: (a -> b -> c -> d) -> Seq a -> Seq b -> Seq c -> Seq d
- zip4 :: Seq a -> Seq b -> Seq c -> Seq d -> Seq (a, b, c, d)
- zipWith4 :: (a -> b -> c -> d -> e) -> Seq a -> Seq b -> Seq c -> Seq d -> Seq e

# Documentation

General-purpose finite sequences.

# Construction

(<|) :: a -> Seq a -> Seq a infixr 5 Source

*O(1)*. Add an element to the left end of a sequence.
Mnemonic: a triangle with the single element at the pointy end.

(|>) :: Seq a -> a -> Seq a infixl 5 Source

*O(1)*. Add an element to the right end of a sequence.
Mnemonic: a triangle with the single element at the pointy end.

## Repetition

replicate :: Int -> a -> Seq a Source

*O(log n)*. `replicate n x`

is a sequence consisting of `n`

copies of `x`

.

replicateA :: Applicative f => Int -> f a -> f (Seq a) Source

`replicateA`

is an `Applicative`

version of `replicate`

, and makes
*O(log n)* calls to `<*>`

and `pure`

.

replicateA n x = sequenceA (replicate n x)

replicateM :: Monad m => Int -> m a -> m (Seq a) Source

`replicateM`

is a sequence counterpart of `replicateM`

.

replicateM n x = sequence (replicate n x)

## Iterative construction

iterateN :: Int -> (a -> a) -> a -> Seq a Source

*O(n)*. Constructs a sequence by repeated application of a function
to a seed value.

iterateN n f x = fromList (Prelude.take n (Prelude.iterate f x))

unfoldr :: (b -> Maybe (a, b)) -> b -> Seq a Source

Builds a sequence from a seed value. Takes time linear in the
number of generated elements. *WARNING:* If the number of generated
elements is infinite, this method will not terminate.

# Deconstruction

## Queries

## Views

View of the left end of a sequence.

View of the right end of a sequence.

# Scans

# Sublists

tails :: Seq a -> Seq (Seq a) Source

*O(n)*. Returns a sequence of all suffixes of this sequence,
longest first. For example,

tails (fromList "abc") = fromList [fromList "abc", fromList "bc", fromList "c", fromList ""]

Evaluating the *i*th suffix takes *O(log(min(i, n-i)))*, but evaluating
every suffix in the sequence takes *O(n)* due to sharing.

inits :: Seq a -> Seq (Seq a) Source

*O(n)*. Returns a sequence of all prefixes of this sequence,
shortest first. For example,

inits (fromList "abc") = fromList [fromList "", fromList "a", fromList "ab", fromList "abc"]

Evaluating the *i*th prefix takes *O(log(min(i, n-i)))*, but evaluating
every prefix in the sequence takes *O(n)* due to sharing.

## Sequential searches

takeWhileL :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(i)* where *i* is the prefix length. `takeWhileL`

, applied
to a predicate `p`

and a sequence `xs`

, returns the longest prefix
(possibly empty) of `xs`

of elements that satisfy `p`

.

takeWhileR :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(i)* where *i* is the suffix length. `takeWhileR`

, applied
to a predicate `p`

and a sequence `xs`

, returns the longest suffix
(possibly empty) of `xs`

of elements that satisfy `p`

.

is equivalent to `takeWhileR`

p xs

.`reverse`

(`takeWhileL`

p (`reverse`

xs))

dropWhileL :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(i)* where *i* is the prefix length.

returns
the suffix remaining after `dropWhileL`

p xs

.`takeWhileL`

p xs

dropWhileR :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(i)* where *i* is the suffix length.

returns
the prefix remaining after `dropWhileR`

p xs

.`takeWhileR`

p xs

is equivalent to `dropWhileR`

p xs

.`reverse`

(`dropWhileL`

p (`reverse`

xs))

spanl :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> (Seq a, Seq a) Source

*O(i)* where *i* is the prefix length. `spanl`

, applied to
a predicate `p`

and a sequence `xs`

, returns a pair whose first
element is the longest prefix (possibly empty) of `xs`

of elements that
satisfy `p`

and the second element is the remainder of the sequence.

spanr :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> (Seq a, Seq a) Source

*O(i)* where *i* is the suffix length. `spanr`

, applied to a
predicate `p`

and a sequence `xs`

, returns a pair whose *first* element
is the longest *suffix* (possibly empty) of `xs`

of elements that
satisfy `p`

and the second element is the remainder of the sequence.

breakl :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> (Seq a, Seq a) Source

*O(i)* where *i* is the breakpoint index. `breakl`

, applied to a
predicate `p`

and a sequence `xs`

, returns a pair whose first element
is the longest prefix (possibly empty) of `xs`

of elements that
*do not satisfy* `p`

and the second element is the remainder of
the sequence.

partition :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> (Seq a, Seq a) Source

*O(n)*. The `partition`

function takes a predicate `p`

and a
sequence `xs`

and returns sequences of those elements which do and
do not satisfy the predicate.

filter :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(n)*. The `filter`

function takes a predicate `p`

and a sequence
`xs`

and returns a sequence of those elements which satisfy the
predicate.

# Sorting

sort :: Ord a => Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(n log n)*. `sort`

sorts the specified `Seq`

by the natural
ordering of its elements. The sort is stable.
If stability is not required, `unstableSort`

can be considerably
faster, and in particular uses less memory.

sortBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(n log n)*. `sortBy`

sorts the specified `Seq`

according to the
specified comparator. The sort is stable.
If stability is not required, `unstableSortBy`

can be considerably
faster, and in particular uses less memory.

unstableSort :: Ord a => Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(n log n)*. `unstableSort`

sorts the specified `Seq`

by
the natural ordering of its elements, but the sort is not stable.
This algorithm is frequently faster and uses less memory than `sort`

,
and performs extremely well -- frequently twice as fast as `sort`

--
when the sequence is already nearly sorted.

unstableSortBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(n log n)*. A generalization of `unstableSort`

, `unstableSortBy`

takes an arbitrary comparator and sorts the specified sequence.
The sort is not stable. This algorithm is frequently faster and
uses less memory than `sortBy`

, and performs extremely well --
frequently twice as fast as `sortBy`

-- when the sequence is already
nearly sorted.

# Indexing

index :: Seq a -> Int -> a Source

*O(log(min(i,n-i)))*. The element at the specified position,
counting from 0. The argument should thus be a non-negative
integer less than the size of the sequence.
If the position is out of range, `index`

fails with an error.

adjust :: (a -> a) -> Int -> Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(log(min(i,n-i)))*. Update the element at the specified position.
If the position is out of range, the original sequence is returned.

update :: Int -> a -> Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(log(min(i,n-i)))*. Replace the element at the specified position.
If the position is out of range, the original sequence is returned.

take :: Int -> Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(log(min(i,n-i)))*. The first `i`

elements of a sequence.
If `i`

is negative,

yields the empty sequence.
If the sequence contains fewer than `take`

i s`i`

elements, the whole sequence
is returned.

drop :: Int -> Seq a -> Seq a Source

*O(log(min(i,n-i)))*. Elements of a sequence after the first `i`

.
If `i`

is negative,

yields the whole sequence.
If the sequence contains fewer than `drop`

i s`i`

elements, the empty sequence
is returned.

## Indexing with predicates

These functions perform sequential searches from the left or right ends of the sequence, returning indices of matching elements.

elemIndexL :: Eq a => a -> Seq a -> Maybe Int Source

`elemIndexL`

finds the leftmost index of the specified element,
if it is present, and otherwise `Nothing`

.

elemIndicesL :: Eq a => a -> Seq a -> [Int] Source

`elemIndicesL`

finds the indices of the specified element, from
left to right (i.e. in ascending order).

elemIndexR :: Eq a => a -> Seq a -> Maybe Int Source

`elemIndexR`

finds the rightmost index of the specified element,
if it is present, and otherwise `Nothing`

.

elemIndicesR :: Eq a => a -> Seq a -> [Int] Source

`elemIndicesR`

finds the indices of the specified element, from
right to left (i.e. in descending order).

findIndexL :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Maybe Int Source

finds the index of the leftmost element that
satisfies `findIndexL`

p xs`p`

, if any exist.

findIndicesL :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> [Int] Source

finds all indices of elements that satisfy `findIndicesL`

p`p`

,
in ascending order.

findIndexR :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> Maybe Int Source

finds the index of the rightmost element that
satisfies `findIndexR`

p xs`p`

, if any exist.

findIndicesR :: (a -> Bool) -> Seq a -> [Int] Source

finds all indices of elements that satisfy `findIndicesR`

p`p`

,
in descending order.

# Folds

foldlWithIndex :: (b -> Int -> a -> b) -> b -> Seq a -> b Source

`foldlWithIndex`

is a version of `foldl`

that also provides access
to the index of each element.

foldrWithIndex :: (Int -> a -> b -> b) -> b -> Seq a -> b Source

`foldrWithIndex`

is a version of `foldr`

that also provides access
to the index of each element.

# Transformations

mapWithIndex :: (Int -> a -> b) -> Seq a -> Seq b Source

A generalization of `fmap`

, `mapWithIndex`

takes a mapping function
that also depends on the element's index, and applies it to every
element in the sequence.

## Zips

zip :: Seq a -> Seq b -> Seq (a, b) Source

*O(min(n1,n2))*. `zip`

takes two sequences and returns a sequence
of corresponding pairs. If one input is short, excess elements are
discarded from the right end of the longer sequence.