% % (c) The University of Glasgow 2006 % (c) The GRASP/AQUA Project, Glasgow University, 2000 % FunDeps - functional dependencies It's better to read it as: "if we know these, then we're going to know these" \begin{code}
module FunDeps (
        FDEq (..),
        Equation(..), pprEquation,
        improveFromInstEnv, improveFromAnother,
        checkInstCoverage, checkFunDeps,
        growThetaTyVars, pprFundeps
    ) where

#include "HsVersions.h"

import Name
import Var
import Class
import Type
import Unify
import InstEnv
import VarSet
import VarEnv
import Maybes( firstJusts )
import Outputable
import Util
import FastString

import Data.List        ( nubBy )
import Data.Maybe       ( isJust )
\end{code} %************************************************************************ %* * \subsection{Close type variables} %* * %************************************************************************ Note [Growing the tau-tvs using constraints] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (growThetaTyVars insts tvs) is the result of extending the set of tyvars tvs using all conceivable links from pred E.g. tvs = {a}, preds = {H [a] b, K (b,Int) c, Eq e} Then growThetaTyVars preds tvs = {a,b,c} Notice that growThetaTyVars is conservative if v might be fixed by vs => v `elem` grow(vs,C) \begin{code}
growThetaTyVars :: ThetaType -> TyVarSet -> TyVarSet
-- See Note [Growing the tau-tvs using constraints]
growThetaTyVars theta tvs
  | null theta = tvs
  | otherwise  = fixVarSet mk_next tvs
    mk_next tvs = foldr grow_one tvs theta
    grow_one pred tvs = growPredTyVars pred tvs `unionVarSet` tvs

growPredTyVars :: PredType
               -> TyVarSet      -- The set to extend
               -> TyVarSet      -- TyVars of the predicate if it intersects the set,
growPredTyVars pred tvs
   | isIPPred pred                   = pred_tvs   -- Always quantify over implicit parameers
   | pred_tvs `intersectsVarSet` tvs = pred_tvs
   | otherwise                       = emptyVarSet
    pred_tvs = tyVarsOfType pred
\end{code} %************************************************************************ %* * \subsection{Generate equations from functional dependencies} %* * %************************************************************************ Each functional dependency with one variable in the RHS is responsible for generating a single equality. For instance: class C a b | a -> b The constraints ([Wanted] C Int Bool) and [Wanted] C Int alpha FDEq { fd_pos = 1 , fd_ty_left = Bool , fd_ty_right = alpha } However notice that a functional dependency may have more than one variable in the RHS which will create more than one FDEq. Example: class C a b c | a -> b c [Wanted] C Int alpha alpha [Wanted] C Int Bool beta Will generate: fd1 = FDEq { fd_pos = 1, fd_ty_left = alpha, fd_ty_right = Bool } and fd2 = FDEq { fd_pos = 2, fd_ty_left = alpha, fd_ty_right = beta } We record the paremeter position so that can immediately rewrite a constraint using the produced FDEqs and remove it from our worklist. INVARIANT: Corresponding types aren't already equal That is, there exists at least one non-identity equality in FDEqs. Assume: class C a b c | a -> b c instance C Int x x And: [Wanted] C Int Bool alpha We will /match/ the LHS of fundep equations, producing a matching substitution and create equations for the RHS sides. In our last example we'd have generated: ({x}, [fd1,fd2]) where fd1 = FDEq 1 Bool x fd2 = FDEq 2 alpha x To ``execute'' the equation, make fresh type variable for each tyvar in the set, instantiate the two types with these fresh variables, and then unify or generate a new constraint. In the above example we would generate a new unification variable 'beta' for x and produce the following constraints: [Wanted] (Bool ~ beta) [Wanted] (alpha ~ beta) Notice the subtle difference between the above class declaration and: class C a b c | a -> b, a -> c where we would generate: ({x},[fd1]),({x},[fd2]) This means that the template variable would be instantiated to different unification variables when producing the FD constraints. Finally, the position parameters will help us rewrite the wanted constraint ``on the spot'' \begin{code}
data Equation
   = FDEqn { fd_qtvs :: [TyVar]                 -- Instantiate these type and kind vars to fresh unification vars
           , fd_eqs  :: [FDEq]                  --   and then make these equal
           , fd_pred1, fd_pred2 :: PredType }   -- The Equation arose from
                                                -- combining these two constraints

data FDEq = FDEq { fd_pos      :: Int -- We use '0' for the first position
                 , fd_ty_left  :: Type
                 , fd_ty_right :: Type }

instance Outputable FDEq where
  ppr (FDEq { fd_pos = p, fd_ty_left = tyl, fd_ty_right = tyr })
    = parens (int p <> comma <+> ppr tyl <> comma <+> ppr tyr)
\end{code} Given a bunch of predicates that must hold, such as C Int t1, C Int t2, C Bool t3, ?x::t4, ?x::t5 improve figures out what extra equations must hold. For example, if we have class C a b | a->b where ... then improve will return [(t1,t2), (t4,t5)] NOTA BENE: * improve does not iterate. It's possible that when we make t1=t2, for example, that will in turn trigger a new equation. This would happen if we also had C t1 t7, C t2 t8 If t1=t2, we also get t7=t8. improve does *not* do this extra step. It relies on the caller doing so. * The equations unify types that are not already equal. So there is no effect iff the result of improve is empty \begin{code}
instFD :: FunDep TyVar -> [TyVar] -> [Type] -> FunDep Type
-- A simpler version of instFD_WithPos to be used in checking instance coverage etc.
instFD (ls,rs) tvs tys
  = (map lookup ls, map lookup rs)
    env       = zipVarEnv tvs tys
    lookup tv = lookupVarEnv_NF env tv

instFD_WithPos :: FunDep TyVar -> [TyVar] -> [Type] -> ([Type], [(Int,Type)])
-- Returns a FunDep between the types accompanied along with their
-- position (<=0) in the types argument list.
instFD_WithPos (ls,rs) tvs tys
  = (map (snd . lookup) ls, map lookup rs)
    ind_tys   = zip [0..] tys
    env       = zipVarEnv tvs ind_tys
    lookup tv = lookupVarEnv_NF env tv

zipAndComputeFDEqs :: (Type -> Type -> Bool) -- Discard this FDEq if true
                   -> [Type]
                   -> [(Int,Type)]
                   -> [FDEq]
-- Create a list of FDEqs from two lists of types, making sure
-- that the types are not equal.
zipAndComputeFDEqs discard (ty1:tys1) ((i2,ty2):tys2)
 | discard ty1 ty2 = zipAndComputeFDEqs discard tys1 tys2
 | otherwise = FDEq { fd_pos      = i2
                    , fd_ty_left  = ty1
                    , fd_ty_right = ty2 } : zipAndComputeFDEqs discard tys1 tys2
zipAndComputeFDEqs _ _ _ = []

-- Improve a class constraint from another class constraint
-- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
improveFromAnother :: PredType -- Template item (usually given, or inert)
                   -> PredType -- Workitem [that can be improved]
                   -> [Equation]
-- Post: FDEqs always oriented from the other to the workitem
--       Equations have empty quantified variables
improveFromAnother pred1 pred2
  | Just (cls1, tys1) <- getClassPredTys_maybe pred1
  , Just (cls2, tys2) <- getClassPredTys_maybe pred2
  , tys1 `lengthAtLeast` 2 && cls1 == cls2
  = [ FDEqn { fd_qtvs = [], fd_eqs = eqs, fd_pred1 = pred1, fd_pred2 = pred2 }
    | let (cls_tvs, cls_fds) = classTvsFds cls1
    , fd <- cls_fds
    , let (ltys1, rs1)  = instFD         fd cls_tvs tys1
          (ltys2, irs2) = instFD_WithPos fd cls_tvs tys2
    , eqTypes ltys1 ltys2               -- The LHSs match
    , let eqs = zipAndComputeFDEqs eqType rs1 irs2
    , not (null eqs) ]

improveFromAnother _ _ = []

-- Improve a class constraint from instance declarations
-- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

pprEquation :: Equation -> SDoc
pprEquation (FDEqn { fd_qtvs = qtvs, fd_eqs = pairs })
  = vcat [ptext (sLit "forall") <+> braces (pprWithCommas ppr qtvs),
          nest 2 (vcat [ ppr t1 <+> ptext (sLit "~") <+> ppr t2 | (FDEq _ t1 t2) <- pairs])]

improveFromInstEnv :: (InstEnv,InstEnv)
                   -> PredType
                   -> [Equation] -- Needs to be an Equation because
                                 -- of quantified variables
-- Post: Equations oriented from the template (matching instance) to the workitem!
improveFromInstEnv _inst_env pred
  | not (isClassPred pred)
  = panic "improveFromInstEnv: not a class predicate"
improveFromInstEnv inst_env pred
  | Just (cls, tys) <- getClassPredTys_maybe pred
  , tys `lengthAtLeast` 2
  , let (cls_tvs, cls_fds) = classTvsFds cls
        instances          = classInstances inst_env cls
        rough_tcs          = roughMatchTcs tys
  = [ FDEqn { fd_qtvs = meta_tvs, fd_eqs = eqs, fd_pred1 = p_inst, fd_pred2=pred }
    | fd <- cls_fds             -- Iterate through the fundeps first,
                                -- because there often are none!
    , let trimmed_tcs = trimRoughMatchTcs cls_tvs fd rough_tcs
                -- Trim the rough_tcs based on the head of the fundep.
                -- Remember that instanceCantMatch treats both argumnents
                -- symmetrically, so it's ok to trim the rough_tcs,
                -- rather than trimming each inst_tcs in turn
    , ispec <- instances
    , (meta_tvs, eqs) <- checkClsFD fd cls_tvs ispec
                                    emptyVarSet tys trimmed_tcs -- NB: orientation
    , let p_inst = mkClassPred cls (is_tys ispec)
improveFromInstEnv _ _ = []

checkClsFD :: FunDep TyVar -> [TyVar]             -- One functional dependency from the class
           -> ClsInst                             -- An instance template
           -> TyVarSet -> [Type] -> [Maybe Name]  -- Arguments of this (C tys) predicate
                                                  -- TyVarSet are extra tyvars that can be instantiated
           -> [([TyVar], [FDEq])]

checkClsFD fd clas_tvs
           (ClsInst { is_tvs = qtvs, is_tys = tys_inst, is_tcs = rough_tcs_inst })
           extra_qtvs tys_actual rough_tcs_actual

-- 'qtvs' are the quantified type variables, the ones which an be instantiated
-- to make the types match.  For example, given
--      class C a b | a->b where ...
--      instance C (Maybe x) (Tree x) where ..
-- and an Inst of form (C (Maybe t1) t2),
-- then we will call checkClsFD with
--      is_qtvs = {x}, is_tys = [Maybe x,  Tree x]
--                     tys_actual = [Maybe t1, t2]
-- We can instantiate x to t1, and then we want to force
--      (Tree x) [t1/x]  ~   t2
-- This function is also used when matching two Insts (rather than an Inst
-- against an instance decl. In that case, qtvs is empty, and we are doing
-- an equality check
-- This function is also used by InstEnv.badFunDeps, which needs to *unify*
-- For the one-sided matching case, the qtvs are just from the template,
-- so we get matching

  | instanceCantMatch rough_tcs_inst rough_tcs_actual
  = []          -- Filter out ones that can't possibly match,

  | otherwise
  = ASSERT2( length tys_inst == length tys_actual     &&
             length tys_inst == length clas_tvs
            , ppr tys_inst <+> ppr tys_actual )

    case tcUnifyTys bind_fn ltys1 ltys2 of
        Nothing  -> []
        Just subst | isJust (tcUnifyTys bind_fn rtys1' rtys2')
                        -- Don't include any equations that already hold.
                        -- Reason: then we know if any actual improvement has happened,
                        --         in which case we need to iterate the solver
                        -- In making this check we must taking account of the fact that any
                        -- qtvs that aren't already instantiated can be instantiated to anything
                        -- at all
                        -- NB: We can't do this 'is-useful-equation' check element-wise
                        --     because of:
                        --           class C a b c | a -> b c
                        --           instance C Int x x
                        --           [Wanted] C Int alpha Int
                        -- We would get that  x -> alpha  (isJust) and x -> Int (isJust)
                        -- so we would produce no FDs, which is clearly wrong.
                  -> []

                  | null fdeqs
                  -> []

                  | otherwise
                  -> [(meta_tvs, fdeqs)]
                        -- We could avoid this substTy stuff by producing the eqn
                        -- (qtvs, ls1++rs1, ls2++rs2)
                        -- which will re-do the ls1/ls2 unification when the equation is
                        -- executed.  What we're doing instead is recording the partial
                        -- work of the ls1/ls2 unification leaving a smaller unification problem
                    rtys1' = map (substTy subst) rtys1
                    irs2'  = map (\(i,x) -> (i,substTy subst x)) irs2
                    rtys2' = map snd irs2'

                    fdeqs = zipAndComputeFDEqs (\_ _ -> False) rtys1' irs2'
                        -- Don't discard anything!
                        -- We could discard equal types but it's an overkill to call
                        -- eqType again, since we know for sure that /at least one/
                        -- equation in there is useful)

                    meta_tvs = [ setVarType tv (substTy subst (varType tv))
                               | tv <- qtvs, tv `notElemTvSubst` subst ]
                        -- meta_tvs are the quantified type variables
                        -- that have not been substituted out
                        -- Eg.  class C a b | a -> b
                        --      instance C Int [y]
                        -- Given constraint C Int z
                        -- we generate the equation
                        --      ({y}, [y], z)
                        -- But note (a) we get them from the dfun_id, so they are *in order*
                        --              because the kind variables may be mentioned in the
                        --              type variabes' kinds
                        --          (b) we must apply 'subst' to the kinds, in case we have
                        --              matched out a kind variable, but not a type variable
                        --              whose kind mentions that kind variable!
                        --          Trac #6015, #6068
    qtv_set = mkVarSet qtvs
    bind_fn tv | tv `elemVarSet` qtv_set    = BindMe
               | tv `elemVarSet` extra_qtvs = BindMe
               | otherwise                  = Skolem

    (ltys1, rtys1) = instFD         fd clas_tvs tys_inst
    (ltys2, irs2)  = instFD_WithPos fd clas_tvs tys_actual
\end{code} %************************************************************************ %* * The Coverage condition for instance declarations %* * %************************************************************************ Note [Coverage condition] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Example class C a b | a -> b instance theta => C t1 t2 For the coverage condition, we check (normal) fv(t2) `subset` fv(t1) (liberal) fv(t2) `subset` oclose(fv(t1), theta) The liberal version ensures the self-consistency of the instance, but it does not guarantee termination. Example: class Mul a b c | a b -> c where (.*.) :: a -> b -> c instance Mul Int Int Int where (.*.) = (*) instance Mul Int Float Float where x .*. y = fromIntegral x * y instance Mul a b c => Mul a [b] [c] where x .*. v = map (x.*.) v In the third instance, it's not the case that fv([c]) `subset` fv(a,[b]). But it is the case that fv([c]) `subset` oclose( theta, fv(a,[b]) ) But it is a mistake to accept the instance because then this defn: f = \ b x y -> if b then x .*. [y] else y makes instance inference go into a loop, because it requires the constraint Mul a [b] b \begin{code}
checkInstCoverage :: Bool   -- Be liberal
                  -> Class -> [PredType] -> [Type]
                  -> Maybe SDoc
-- "be_liberal" flag says whether to use "liberal" coverage of
--              See Note [Coverage Condition] below
-- Return values
--    Nothing  => no problems
--    Just msg => coverage problem described by msg

checkInstCoverage be_liberal clas theta inst_taus
  = firstJusts (map fundep_ok fds)
    (tyvars, fds) = classTvsFds clas
    fundep_ok fd
       | if be_liberal then liberal_ok else conservative_ok
       = Nothing
       | otherwise
       = Just msg
         (ls,rs) = instFD fd tyvars inst_taus
         ls_tvs = closeOverKinds (tyVarsOfTypes ls)  -- See Note [Closing over kinds in coverage]
         rs_tvs = tyVarsOfTypes rs

         conservative_ok = rs_tvs `subVarSet` ls_tvs
         liberal_ok      = rs_tvs `subVarSet` oclose theta ls_tvs

         msg = vcat [ sep [ ptext (sLit "The")
                            <+> ppWhen be_liberal (ptext (sLit "liberal"))
                            <+> ptext (sLit "coverage condition fails in class")
                            <+> quotes (ppr clas)
                          , nest 2 $ ptext (sLit "for functional dependency:")
                            <+> quotes (pprFunDep fd) ]
                    , sep [ ptext (sLit "Reason: lhs type")<>plural ls <+> pprQuotedList ls
                          , nest 2 $
                            (if isSingleton ls
                             then ptext (sLit "does not")
                             else ptext (sLit "do not jointly"))
                            <+> ptext (sLit "determine rhs type")<>plural rs
                            <+> pprQuotedList rs ]
                    , ppWhen (not be_liberal && liberal_ok) $
                      ptext (sLit "Using UndecidableInstances might help") ]
\end{code} Note [Closing over kinds in coverage] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Suppose we have a fundep (a::k) -> b Then if 'a' is instantiated to (x y), where x:k2->*, y:k2, then fixing x really fixes k2 as well, and so k2 should be added to the lhs tyvars in the fundep check. Example (Trac #8391), using liberal coverage type Foo a = a -- Foo :: forall k. k -> k class Bar a b | a -> b instance Bar a (Foo a) In the instance decl, (a:k) does fix (Foo k a), but only if we notice that (a:k) fixes k. Note [The liberal coverage condition] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (oclose preds tvs) closes the set of type variables tvs, wrt functional dependencies in preds. The result is a superset of the argument set. For example, if we have class C a b | a->b where ... then oclose [C (x,y) z, C (x,p) q] {x,y} = {x,y,z} because if we know x and y then that fixes z. We also use equality predicates in the predicates; if we have an assumption `t1 ~ t2`, then we use the fact that if we know `t1` we also know `t2` and the other way. eg oclose [C (x,y) z, a ~ x] {a,y} = {a,y,z,x} oclose is used (only) when checking the coverage condition for an instance declaration \begin{code}
oclose :: [PredType] -> TyVarSet -> TyVarSet
-- See Note [The liberal coverage condition]
oclose preds fixed_tvs
  | null tv_fds = fixed_tvs -- Fast escape hatch for common case.
  | otherwise   = loop fixed_tvs
    loop fixed_tvs
      | new_fixed_tvs `subVarSet` fixed_tvs = fixed_tvs
      | otherwise                           = loop new_fixed_tvs
      where new_fixed_tvs = foldl extend fixed_tvs tv_fds

    extend fixed_tvs (ls,rs)
        | ls `subVarSet` fixed_tvs = fixed_tvs `unionVarSet` rs
        | otherwise                = fixed_tvs

    tv_fds  :: [(TyVarSet,TyVarSet)]
    tv_fds  = [ (tyVarsOfTypes xs, tyVarsOfTypes ys)
              | (xs, ys) <- concatMap determined preds

    determined :: PredType -> [([Type],[Type])]
    determined pred
       = case classifyPredType pred of
            ClassPred cls tys ->
               do let (cls_tvs, cls_fds) = classTvsFds cls
                  fd <- cls_fds
                  return (instFD fd cls_tvs tys)
            EqPred t1 t2      -> [([t1],[t2]), ([t2],[t1])]
            TuplePred ts      -> concatMap determined ts
            _                 -> []
\end{code} %************************************************************************ %* * Check that a new instance decl is OK wrt fundeps %* * %************************************************************************ Here is the bad case: class C a b | a->b where ... instance C Int Bool where ... instance C Int Char where ... The point is that a->b, so Int in the first parameter must uniquely determine the second. In general, given the same class decl, and given instance C s1 s2 where ... instance C t1 t2 where ... Then the criterion is: if U=unify(s1,t1) then U(s2) = U(t2). Matters are a little more complicated if there are free variables in the s2/t2. class D a b c | a -> b instance D a b => D [(a,a)] [b] Int instance D a b => D [a] [b] Bool The instance decls don't overlap, because the third parameter keeps them separate. But we want to make sure that given any constraint D s1 s2 s3 if s1 matches \begin{code}
checkFunDeps :: (InstEnv, InstEnv) -> ClsInst
             -> Maybe [ClsInst] -- Nothing  <=> ok
                                        -- Just dfs <=> conflict with dfs
-- Check wheher adding DFunId would break functional-dependency constraints
-- Used only for instance decls defined in the module being compiled
checkFunDeps inst_envs ispec
  | null bad_fundeps = Nothing
  | otherwise        = Just bad_fundeps
    (ins_tvs, clas, ins_tys) = instanceHead ispec
    ins_tv_set   = mkVarSet ins_tvs
    cls_inst_env = classInstances inst_envs clas
    bad_fundeps  = badFunDeps cls_inst_env clas ins_tv_set ins_tys

badFunDeps :: [ClsInst] -> Class
           -> TyVarSet -> [Type]        -- Proposed new instance type
           -> [ClsInst]
badFunDeps cls_insts clas ins_tv_set ins_tys
  = nubBy eq_inst $
    [ ispec | fd <- fds,        -- fds is often empty, so do this first!
              let trimmed_tcs = trimRoughMatchTcs clas_tvs fd rough_tcs,
              ispec <- cls_insts,
              notNull (checkClsFD fd clas_tvs ispec ins_tv_set ins_tys trimmed_tcs)
    (clas_tvs, fds) = classTvsFds clas
    rough_tcs = roughMatchTcs ins_tys
    eq_inst i1 i2 = instanceDFunId i1 == instanceDFunId i2
        -- An single instance may appear twice in the un-nubbed conflict list
        -- because it may conflict with more than one fundep.  E.g.
        --      class C a b c | a -> b, a -> c
        --      instance C Int Bool Bool
        --      instance C Int Char Char
        -- The second instance conflicts with the first by *both* fundeps

trimRoughMatchTcs :: [TyVar] -> FunDep TyVar -> [Maybe Name] -> [Maybe Name]
-- Computing rough_tcs for a particular fundep
--     class C a b c | a -> b where ...
-- For each instance .... => C ta tb tc
-- we want to match only on the type ta; so our
-- rough-match thing must similarly be filtered.
-- Hence, we Nothing-ise the tb and tc types right here
trimRoughMatchTcs clas_tvs (ltvs, _) mb_tcs
  = zipWith select clas_tvs mb_tcs
    select clas_tv mb_tc | clas_tv `elem` ltvs = mb_tc
                         | otherwise           = Nothing