base- Basic libraries





Mutable references in the IO monad.



data IORef a Source

A mutable variable in the IO monad


newIORef :: a -> IO (IORef a)Source

Build a new IORef

readIORef :: IORef a -> IO aSource

Read the value of an IORef

writeIORef :: IORef a -> a -> IO ()Source

Write a new value into an IORef

modifyIORef :: IORef a -> (a -> a) -> IO ()Source

Mutate the contents of an IORef

atomicModifyIORef :: IORef a -> (a -> (a, b)) -> IO bSource

Atomically modifies the contents of an IORef.

This function is useful for using IORef in a safe way in a multithreaded program. If you only have one IORef, then using atomicModifyIORef to access and modify it will prevent race conditions.

Extending the atomicity to multiple IORefs is problematic, so it is recommended that if you need to do anything more complicated then using Control.Concurrent.MVar.MVar instead is a good idea.

mkWeakIORef :: IORef a -> IO () -> IO (Weak (IORef a))Source

Make a Weak pointer to an IORef, using the second argument as a finalizer to run when IORef is garbage-collected

Memory Model

In a concurrent program, IORef operations may appear out-of-order to another thread, depending on the memory model of the underlying processor architecture. For example, on x86, loads can move ahead of stores, so in the following example:

  maybePrint :: IORef Bool -> IORef Bool -> IO ()
  maybePrint myRef yourRef = do
    writeIORef myRef True
    yourVal <- readIORef yourRef
    unless yourVal $ putStrLn "critical section"

  main :: IO ()
  main = do
    r1 <- newIORef False
    r2 <- newIORef False
    forkIO $ maybePrint r1 r2
    forkIO $ maybePrint r2 r1
    threadDelay 1000000

it is possible that the string critical section is printed twice, even though there is no interleaving of the operations of the two threads that allows that outcome. The memory model of x86 allows readIORef to happen before the earlier writeIORef.

The implementation is required to ensure that reordering of memory operations cannot cause type-correct code to go wrong. In particular, when inspecting the value read from an IORef, the memory writes that created that value must have occurred from the point of view of the current therad.

atomicModifyIORef acts as a barrier to reordering. Multiple atomicModifyIORef operations occur in strict program order. An atomicModifyIORef is never observed to take place ahead of any earlier (in program order) IORef operations, or after any later IORef operations.