{- (c) The University of Glasgow 2006 (c) The GRASP/AQUA Project, Glasgow University, 1992-1998 -} {-# LANGUAGE CPP, DeriveDataTypeable, FlexibleContexts #-} {-# LANGUAGE NamedFieldPuns #-} {-# LANGUAGE BangPatterns #-} {-# OPTIONS_GHC -Wno-incomplete-uni-patterns #-} {-# OPTIONS_GHC -Wno-incomplete-record-updates #-} -- | GHC.Core holds all the main data types for use by for the Glasgow Haskell Compiler midsection module GHC.Core ( -- * Main data types Expr(..), Alt(..), Bind(..), AltCon(..), Arg, CoreProgram, CoreExpr, CoreAlt, CoreBind, CoreArg, CoreBndr, TaggedExpr, TaggedAlt, TaggedBind, TaggedArg, TaggedBndr(..), deTagExpr, -- * In/Out type synonyms InId, InBind, InExpr, InAlt, InArg, InType, InKind, InBndr, InVar, InCoercion, InTyVar, InCoVar, OutId, OutBind, OutExpr, OutAlt, OutArg, OutType, OutKind, OutBndr, OutVar, OutCoercion, OutTyVar, OutCoVar, MOutCoercion, -- ** 'Expr' construction mkLet, mkLets, mkLetNonRec, mkLetRec, mkLams, mkApps, mkTyApps, mkCoApps, mkVarApps, mkTyArg, mkIntLit, mkIntLitWrap, mkWordLit, mkWordLitWrap, mkWord8Lit, mkWord64LitWord64, mkInt64LitInt64, mkCharLit, mkStringLit, mkFloatLit, mkFloatLitFloat, mkDoubleLit, mkDoubleLitDouble, mkConApp, mkConApp2, mkTyBind, mkCoBind, varToCoreExpr, varsToCoreExprs, isId, cmpAltCon, cmpAlt, ltAlt, -- ** Simple 'Expr' access functions and predicates bindersOf, bindersOfBinds, rhssOfBind, rhssOfAlts, collectBinders, collectTyBinders, collectTyAndValBinders, collectNBinders, collectArgs, stripNArgs, collectArgsTicks, flattenBinds, exprToType, exprToCoercion_maybe, applyTypeToArg, isValArg, isTypeArg, isCoArg, isTyCoArg, valArgCount, valBndrCount, isRuntimeArg, isRuntimeVar, -- * Unfolding data types Unfolding(..), UnfoldingGuidance(..), UnfoldingSource(..), -- ** Constructing 'Unfolding's noUnfolding, bootUnfolding, evaldUnfolding, mkOtherCon, unSaturatedOk, needSaturated, boringCxtOk, boringCxtNotOk, -- ** Predicates and deconstruction on 'Unfolding' unfoldingTemplate, expandUnfolding_maybe, maybeUnfoldingTemplate, otherCons, isValueUnfolding, isEvaldUnfolding, isCheapUnfolding, isExpandableUnfolding, isConLikeUnfolding, isCompulsoryUnfolding, isStableUnfolding, hasCoreUnfolding, hasSomeUnfolding, isBootUnfolding, canUnfold, neverUnfoldGuidance, isStableSource, -- * Annotated expression data types AnnExpr, AnnExpr'(..), AnnBind(..), AnnAlt(..), -- ** Operations on annotated expressions collectAnnArgs, collectAnnArgsTicks, -- ** Operations on annotations deAnnotate, deAnnotate', deAnnAlt, deAnnBind, collectAnnBndrs, collectNAnnBndrs, -- * Orphanhood IsOrphan(..), isOrphan, notOrphan, chooseOrphanAnchor, -- * Core rule data types CoreRule(..), RuleBase, RuleName, RuleFun, IdUnfoldingFun, InScopeEnv, RuleEnv(..), RuleOpts(..), mkRuleEnv, emptyRuleEnv, -- ** Operations on 'CoreRule's ruleArity, ruleName, ruleIdName, ruleActivation, setRuleIdName, ruleModule, isBuiltinRule, isLocalRule, isAutoRule, ) where #include "HsVersions.h" import GHC.Prelude import GHC.Platform import GHC.Types.Var.Env( InScopeSet ) import GHC.Types.Var import GHC.Core.Type import GHC.Core.Coercion import GHC.Types.Name import GHC.Types.Name.Set import GHC.Types.Name.Env( NameEnv, emptyNameEnv ) import GHC.Types.Literal import GHC.Types.Tickish import GHC.Core.DataCon import GHC.Unit.Module import GHC.Types.Basic import GHC.Types.Unique.Set import GHC.Utils.Binary import GHC.Utils.Misc import GHC.Utils.Outputable import GHC.Utils.Panic import GHC.Driver.Ppr import Data.Data hiding (TyCon) import Data.Int import Data.Word infixl 4 `mkApps`, `mkTyApps`, `mkVarApps`, `App`, `mkCoApps` -- Left associative, so that we can say (f `mkTyApps` xs `mkVarApps` ys) {- ************************************************************************ * * \subsection{The main data types} * * ************************************************************************ These data types are the heart of the compiler -} -- | This is the data type that represents GHCs core intermediate language. Currently -- GHC uses System FC <https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/publication/system-f-with-type-equality-coercions/> for this purpose, -- which is closely related to the simpler and better known System F <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_F>. -- -- We get from Haskell source to this Core language in a number of stages: -- -- 1. The source code is parsed into an abstract syntax tree, which is represented -- by the data type 'GHC.Hs.Expr.HsExpr' with the names being 'GHC.Types.Name.Reader.RdrNames' -- -- 2. This syntax tree is /renamed/, which attaches a 'GHC.Types.Unique.Unique' to every 'GHC.Types.Name.Reader.RdrName' -- (yielding a 'GHC.Types.Name.Name') to disambiguate identifiers which are lexically identical. -- For example, this program: -- -- @ -- f x = let f x = x + 1 -- in f (x - 2) -- @ -- -- Would be renamed by having 'Unique's attached so it looked something like this: -- -- @ -- f_1 x_2 = let f_3 x_4 = x_4 + 1 -- in f_3 (x_2 - 2) -- @ -- But see Note [Shadowing] below. -- -- 3. The resulting syntax tree undergoes type checking (which also deals with instantiating -- type class arguments) to yield a 'GHC.Hs.Expr.HsExpr' type that has 'GHC.Types.Id.Id' as it's names. -- -- 4. Finally the syntax tree is /desugared/ from the expressive 'GHC.Hs.Expr.HsExpr' type into -- this 'Expr' type, which has far fewer constructors and hence is easier to perform -- optimization, analysis and code generation on. -- -- The type parameter @b@ is for the type of binders in the expression tree. -- -- The language consists of the following elements: -- -- * Variables -- See Note [Variable occurrences in Core] -- -- * Primitive literals -- -- * Applications: note that the argument may be a 'Type'. -- See Note [Core let/app invariant] -- See Note [Levity polymorphism invariants] -- -- * Lambda abstraction -- See Note [Levity polymorphism invariants] -- -- * Recursive and non recursive @let@s. Operationally -- this corresponds to allocating a thunk for the things -- bound and then executing the sub-expression. -- -- See Note [Core letrec invariant] -- See Note [Core let/app invariant] -- See Note [Levity polymorphism invariants] -- See Note [Core type and coercion invariant] -- -- * Case expression. Operationally this corresponds to evaluating -- the scrutinee (expression examined) to weak head normal form -- and then examining at most one level of resulting constructor (i.e. you -- cannot do nested pattern matching directly with this). -- -- The binder gets bound to the value of the scrutinee, -- and the 'Type' must be that of all the case alternatives -- -- IMPORTANT: see Note [Case expression invariants] -- -- * Cast an expression to a particular type. -- This is used to implement @newtype@s (a @newtype@ constructor or -- destructor just becomes a 'Cast' in Core) and GADTs. -- -- * Ticks. These are used to represent all the source annotation we -- support: profiling SCCs, HPC ticks, and GHCi breakpoints. -- -- * A type: this should only show up at the top level of an Arg -- -- * A coercion {- Note [Why does Case have a 'Type' field?] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The obvious alternative is exprType (Case scrut bndr alts) | (_,_,rhs1):_ <- alts = exprType rhs1 But caching the type in the Case constructor exprType (Case scrut bndr ty alts) = ty is better for at least three reasons: * It works when there are no alternatives (see case invariant 1 above) * It might be faster in deeply-nested situations. * It might not be quite the same as (exprType rhs) for one of the RHSs in alts. Consider a phantom type synonym type S a = Int and we want to form the case expression case x of { K (a::*) -> (e :: S a) } Then exprType of the RHS is (S a), but we cannot make that be the 'ty' in the Case constructor because 'a' is simply not in scope there. Instead we must expand the synonym to Int before putting it in the Case constructor. See GHC.Core.Utils.mkSingleAltCase. So we'd have to do synonym expansion in exprType which would be inefficient. * The type stored in the case is checked with lintInTy. This checks (among other things) that it does not mention any variables that are not in scope. If we did not have the type there, it would be a bit harder for Core Lint to reject case blah of Ex x -> x where data Ex = forall a. Ex a. -} -- If you edit this type, you may need to update the GHC formalism -- See Note [GHC Formalism] in GHC.Core.Lint data Expr b = Var Id | Lit Literal | App (Expr b) (Arg b) | Lam b (Expr b) | Let (Bind b) (Expr b) | Case (Expr b) b Type [Alt b] -- See Note [Case expression invariants] -- and Note [Why does Case have a 'Type' field?] | Cast (Expr b) CoercionR -- The Coercion has Representational role | Tick CoreTickish (Expr b) | Type Type | Coercion Coercion deriving Expr b -> DataType Expr b -> Constr forall {b}. Data b => Typeable (Expr b) forall b. Data b => Expr b -> DataType forall b. Data b => Expr b -> Constr forall b. Data b => (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> Expr b -> Expr b forall b u. Data b => ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Expr b -> u forall b u. Data b => (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Expr b -> [u] forall b r r'. Data b => (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Expr b -> r forall b r r'. Data b => (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Expr b -> r forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, Monad m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Expr b -> m (Expr b) forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, MonadPlus m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Expr b -> m (Expr b) forall b (c :: * -> *). Data b => (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Expr b) forall b (c :: * -> *). Data b => (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Expr b -> c (Expr b) forall b (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). (Data b, Typeable t) => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Expr b)) forall b (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). (Data b, Typeable t) => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Expr b)) forall a. Typeable a -> (forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> a -> c a) -> (forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c a) -> (a -> Constr) -> (a -> DataType) -> (forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c a)) -> (forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c a)) -> ((forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> a -> a) -> (forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> a -> r) -> (forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> a -> r) -> (forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> a -> [u]) -> (forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> a -> u) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> Data a forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Expr b) forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Expr b -> c (Expr b) forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Expr b)) gmapMo :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Expr b -> m (Expr b) $cgmapMo :: forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, MonadPlus m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Expr b -> m (Expr b) gmapMp :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Expr b -> m (Expr b) $cgmapMp :: forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, MonadPlus m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Expr b -> m (Expr b) gmapM :: forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Expr b -> m (Expr b) $cgmapM :: forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, Monad m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Expr b -> m (Expr b) gmapQi :: forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Expr b -> u $cgmapQi :: forall b u. Data b => ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Expr b -> u gmapQ :: forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Expr b -> [u] $cgmapQ :: forall b u. Data b => (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Expr b -> [u] gmapQr :: forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Expr b -> r $cgmapQr :: forall b r r'. Data b => (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Expr b -> r gmapQl :: forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Expr b -> r $cgmapQl :: forall b r r'. Data b => (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Expr b -> r gmapT :: (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> Expr b -> Expr b $cgmapT :: forall b. Data b => (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> Expr b -> Expr b dataCast2 :: forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Expr b)) $cdataCast2 :: forall b (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). (Data b, Typeable t) => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Expr b)) dataCast1 :: forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Expr b)) $cdataCast1 :: forall b (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). (Data b, Typeable t) => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Expr b)) dataTypeOf :: Expr b -> DataType $cdataTypeOf :: forall b. Data b => Expr b -> DataType toConstr :: Expr b -> Constr $ctoConstr :: forall b. Data b => Expr b -> Constr gunfold :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Expr b) $cgunfold :: forall b (c :: * -> *). Data b => (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Expr b) gfoldl :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Expr b -> c (Expr b) $cgfoldl :: forall b (c :: * -> *). Data b => (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Expr b -> c (Expr b) Data -- | Type synonym for expressions that occur in function argument positions. -- Only 'Arg' should contain a 'Type' at top level, general 'Expr' should not type Arg b = Expr b -- | A case split alternative. Consists of the constructor leading to the alternative, -- the variables bound from the constructor, and the expression to be executed given that binding. -- The default alternative is @(DEFAULT, [], rhs)@ -- If you edit this type, you may need to update the GHC formalism -- See Note [GHC Formalism] in GHC.Core.Lint data Alt b = Alt AltCon [b] (Expr b) deriving (Alt b -> DataType Alt b -> Constr forall {b}. Data b => Typeable (Alt b) forall b. Data b => Alt b -> DataType forall b. Data b => Alt b -> Constr forall b. Data b => (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> Alt b -> Alt b forall b u. Data b => ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Alt b -> u forall b u. Data b => (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Alt b -> [u] forall b r r'. Data b => (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Alt b -> r forall b r r'. Data b => (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Alt b -> r forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, Monad m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Alt b -> m (Alt b) forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, MonadPlus m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Alt b -> m (Alt b) forall b (c :: * -> *). Data b => (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Alt b) forall b (c :: * -> *). Data b => (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Alt b -> c (Alt b) forall b (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). (Data b, Typeable t) => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Alt b)) forall b (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). (Data b, Typeable t) => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Alt b)) forall a. Typeable a -> (forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> a -> c a) -> (forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c a) -> (a -> Constr) -> (a -> DataType) -> (forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c a)) -> (forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c a)) -> ((forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> a -> a) -> (forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> a -> r) -> (forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> a -> r) -> (forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> a -> [u]) -> (forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> a -> u) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> Data a forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Alt b) forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Alt b -> c (Alt b) forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Alt b)) gmapMo :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Alt b -> m (Alt b) $cgmapMo :: forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, MonadPlus m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Alt b -> m (Alt b) gmapMp :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Alt b -> m (Alt b) $cgmapMp :: forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, MonadPlus m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Alt b -> m (Alt b) gmapM :: forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Alt b -> m (Alt b) $cgmapM :: forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, Monad m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Alt b -> m (Alt b) gmapQi :: forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Alt b -> u $cgmapQi :: forall b u. Data b => ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Alt b -> u gmapQ :: forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Alt b -> [u] $cgmapQ :: forall b u. Data b => (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Alt b -> [u] gmapQr :: forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Alt b -> r $cgmapQr :: forall b r r'. Data b => (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Alt b -> r gmapQl :: forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Alt b -> r $cgmapQl :: forall b r r'. Data b => (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Alt b -> r gmapT :: (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> Alt b -> Alt b $cgmapT :: forall b. Data b => (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> Alt b -> Alt b dataCast2 :: forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Alt b)) $cdataCast2 :: forall b (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). (Data b, Typeable t) => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Alt b)) dataCast1 :: forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Alt b)) $cdataCast1 :: forall b (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). (Data b, Typeable t) => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Alt b)) dataTypeOf :: Alt b -> DataType $cdataTypeOf :: forall b. Data b => Alt b -> DataType toConstr :: Alt b -> Constr $ctoConstr :: forall b. Data b => Alt b -> Constr gunfold :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Alt b) $cgunfold :: forall b (c :: * -> *). Data b => (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Alt b) gfoldl :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Alt b -> c (Alt b) $cgfoldl :: forall b (c :: * -> *). Data b => (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Alt b -> c (Alt b) Data) -- | A case alternative constructor (i.e. pattern match) -- If you edit this type, you may need to update the GHC formalism -- See Note [GHC Formalism] in GHC.Core.Lint data AltCon = DataAlt DataCon -- ^ A plain data constructor: @case e of { Foo x -> ... }@. -- Invariant: the 'DataCon' is always from a @data@ type, and never from a @newtype@ | LitAlt Literal -- ^ A literal: @case e of { 1 -> ... }@ -- Invariant: always an *unlifted* literal -- See Note [Literal alternatives] | DEFAULT -- ^ Trivial alternative: @case e of { _ -> ... }@ deriving (AltCon -> AltCon -> Bool forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> (a -> a -> Bool) -> Eq a /= :: AltCon -> AltCon -> Bool $c/= :: AltCon -> AltCon -> Bool == :: AltCon -> AltCon -> Bool $c== :: AltCon -> AltCon -> Bool Eq, Typeable AltCon AltCon -> DataType AltCon -> Constr (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> AltCon -> AltCon forall a. Typeable a -> (forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> a -> c a) -> (forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c a) -> (a -> Constr) -> (a -> DataType) -> (forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c a)) -> (forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c a)) -> ((forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> a -> a) -> (forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> a -> r) -> (forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> a -> r) -> (forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> a -> [u]) -> (forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> a -> u) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> Data a forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> AltCon -> u forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> AltCon -> [u] forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> AltCon -> r forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> AltCon -> r forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> AltCon -> m AltCon forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> AltCon -> m AltCon forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c AltCon forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> AltCon -> c AltCon forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c AltCon) forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c AltCon) gmapMo :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> AltCon -> m AltCon $cgmapMo :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> AltCon -> m AltCon gmapMp :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> AltCon -> m AltCon $cgmapMp :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> AltCon -> m AltCon gmapM :: forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> AltCon -> m AltCon $cgmapM :: forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> AltCon -> m AltCon gmapQi :: forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> AltCon -> u $cgmapQi :: forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> AltCon -> u gmapQ :: forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> AltCon -> [u] $cgmapQ :: forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> AltCon -> [u] gmapQr :: forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> AltCon -> r $cgmapQr :: forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> AltCon -> r gmapQl :: forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> AltCon -> r $cgmapQl :: forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> AltCon -> r gmapT :: (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> AltCon -> AltCon $cgmapT :: (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> AltCon -> AltCon dataCast2 :: forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c AltCon) $cdataCast2 :: forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c AltCon) dataCast1 :: forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c AltCon) $cdataCast1 :: forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c AltCon) dataTypeOf :: AltCon -> DataType $cdataTypeOf :: AltCon -> DataType toConstr :: AltCon -> Constr $ctoConstr :: AltCon -> Constr gunfold :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c AltCon $cgunfold :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c AltCon gfoldl :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> AltCon -> c AltCon $cgfoldl :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> AltCon -> c AltCon Data) -- This instance is a bit shady. It can only be used to compare AltCons for -- a single type constructor. Fortunately, it seems quite unlikely that we'll -- ever need to compare AltCons for different type constructors. -- The instance adheres to the order described in [Core case invariants] instance Ord AltCon where compare :: AltCon -> AltCon -> Ordering compare (DataAlt DataCon con1) (DataAlt DataCon con2) = ASSERT( dataConTyCon con1 == dataConTyCon con2 ) forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Ordering compare (DataCon -> ConTag dataConTag DataCon con1) (DataCon -> ConTag dataConTag DataCon con2) compare (DataAlt DataCon _) AltCon _ = Ordering GT compare AltCon _ (DataAlt DataCon _) = Ordering LT compare (LitAlt Literal l1) (LitAlt Literal l2) = forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Ordering compare Literal l1 Literal l2 compare (LitAlt Literal _) AltCon DEFAULT = Ordering GT compare AltCon DEFAULT AltCon DEFAULT = Ordering EQ compare AltCon DEFAULT AltCon _ = Ordering LT -- | Binding, used for top level bindings in a module and local bindings in a @let@. -- If you edit this type, you may need to update the GHC formalism -- See Note [GHC Formalism] in GHC.Core.Lint data Bind b = NonRec b (Expr b) | Rec [(b, (Expr b))] deriving Bind b -> DataType Bind b -> Constr forall {b}. Data b => Typeable (Bind b) forall b. Data b => Bind b -> DataType forall b. Data b => Bind b -> Constr forall b. Data b => (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> Bind b -> Bind b forall b u. Data b => ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Bind b -> u forall b u. Data b => (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Bind b -> [u] forall b r r'. Data b => (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Bind b -> r forall b r r'. Data b => (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Bind b -> r forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, Monad m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Bind b -> m (Bind b) forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, MonadPlus m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Bind b -> m (Bind b) forall b (c :: * -> *). Data b => (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Bind b) forall b (c :: * -> *). Data b => (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Bind b -> c (Bind b) forall b (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). (Data b, Typeable t) => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Bind b)) forall b (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). (Data b, Typeable t) => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Bind b)) forall a. Typeable a -> (forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> a -> c a) -> (forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c a) -> (a -> Constr) -> (a -> DataType) -> (forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c a)) -> (forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c a)) -> ((forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> a -> a) -> (forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> a -> r) -> (forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> a -> r) -> (forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> a -> [u]) -> (forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> a -> u) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> Data a forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Bind b) forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Bind b -> c (Bind b) forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Bind b)) gmapMo :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Bind b -> m (Bind b) $cgmapMo :: forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, MonadPlus m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Bind b -> m (Bind b) gmapMp :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Bind b -> m (Bind b) $cgmapMp :: forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, MonadPlus m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Bind b -> m (Bind b) gmapM :: forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Bind b -> m (Bind b) $cgmapM :: forall b (m :: * -> *). (Data b, Monad m) => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Bind b -> m (Bind b) gmapQi :: forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Bind b -> u $cgmapQi :: forall b u. Data b => ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Bind b -> u gmapQ :: forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Bind b -> [u] $cgmapQ :: forall b u. Data b => (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Bind b -> [u] gmapQr :: forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Bind b -> r $cgmapQr :: forall b r r'. Data b => (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Bind b -> r gmapQl :: forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Bind b -> r $cgmapQl :: forall b r r'. Data b => (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Bind b -> r gmapT :: (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> Bind b -> Bind b $cgmapT :: forall b. Data b => (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> Bind b -> Bind b dataCast2 :: forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Bind b)) $cdataCast2 :: forall b (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). (Data b, Typeable t) => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Bind b)) dataCast1 :: forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Bind b)) $cdataCast1 :: forall b (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). (Data b, Typeable t) => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Bind b)) dataTypeOf :: Bind b -> DataType $cdataTypeOf :: forall b. Data b => Bind b -> DataType toConstr :: Bind b -> Constr $ctoConstr :: forall b. Data b => Bind b -> Constr gunfold :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Bind b) $cgunfold :: forall b (c :: * -> *). Data b => (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Bind b) gfoldl :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Bind b -> c (Bind b) $cgfoldl :: forall b (c :: * -> *). Data b => (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Bind b -> c (Bind b) Data {- Note [Shadowing] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ While various passes attempt to rename on-the-fly in a manner that avoids "shadowing" (thereby simplifying downstream optimizations), neither the simplifier nor any other pass GUARANTEES that shadowing is avoided. Thus, all passes SHOULD work fine even in the presence of arbitrary shadowing in their inputs. In particular, scrutinee variables `x` in expressions of the form `Case e x t` are often renamed to variables with a prefix "wild_". These "wild" variables may appear in the body of the case-expression, and further, may be shadowed within the body. So the Unique in a Var is not really unique at all. Still, it's very useful to give a constant-time equality/ordering for Vars, and to give a key that can be used to make sets of Vars (VarSet), or mappings from Vars to other things (VarEnv). Moreover, if you do want to eliminate shadowing, you can give a new Unique to an Id without changing its printable name, which makes debugging easier. Note [Literal alternatives] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Literal alternatives (LitAlt lit) are always for *un-lifted* literals. We have one literal, a literal Integer, that is lifted, and we don't allow in a LitAlt, because LitAlt cases don't do any evaluation. Also (see #5603) if you say case 3 of IS x -> ... IP _ -> ... IN _ -> ... (where IS, IP, IN are the constructors for Integer) we don't want the simplifier calling findAlt with argument (LitAlt 3). No no. Integer literals are an opaque encoding of an algebraic data type, not of an unlifted literal, like all the others. Also, we do not permit case analysis with literal patterns on floating-point types. See #9238 and Note [Rules for floating-point comparisons] in GHC.Core.Opt.ConstantFold for the rationale for this restriction. -------------------------- GHC.Core INVARIANTS --------------------------- Note [Variable occurrences in Core] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Variable /occurrences/ are never CoVars, though /bindings/ can be. All CoVars appear in Coercions. For example \(c :: Age~#Int) (d::Int). d |> (sym c) Here 'c' is a CoVar, which is lambda-bound, but it /occurs/ in a Coercion, (sym c). Note [Core letrec invariant] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The right hand sides of all top-level and recursive @let@s /must/ be of lifted type (see "Type#type_classification" for the meaning of /lifted/ vs. /unlifted/). There is one exception to this rule, top-level @let@s are allowed to bind primitive string literals: see Note [Core top-level string literals]. Note [Core top-level string literals] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ As an exception to the usual rule that top-level binders must be lifted, we allow binding primitive string literals (of type Addr#) of type Addr# at the top level. This allows us to share string literals earlier in the pipeline and crucially allows other optimizations in the Core2Core pipeline to fire. Consider, f n = let a::Addr# = "foo"# in \x -> blah In order to be able to inline `f`, we would like to float `a` to the top. Another option would be to inline `a`, but that would lead to duplicating string literals, which we want to avoid. See #8472. The solution is simply to allow top-level unlifted binders. We can't allow arbitrary unlifted expression at the top-level though, unlifted binders cannot be thunks, so we just allow string literals. We allow the top-level primitive string literals to be wrapped in Ticks in the same way they can be wrapped when nested in an expression. CoreToSTG currently discards Ticks around top-level primitive string literals. See #14779. Also see Note [Compilation plan for top-level string literals]. Note [Compilation plan for top-level string literals] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Here is a summary on how top-level string literals are handled by various parts of the compilation pipeline. * In the source language, there is no way to bind a primitive string literal at the top level. * In Core, we have a special rule that permits top-level Addr# bindings. See Note [Core top-level string literals]. Core-to-core passes may introduce new top-level string literals. * In STG, top-level string literals are explicitly represented in the syntax tree. * A top-level string literal may end up exported from a module. In this case, in the object file, the content of the exported literal is given a label with the _bytes suffix. Note [Core let/app invariant] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The let/app invariant the right hand side of a non-recursive 'Let', and the argument of an 'App', /may/ be of unlifted type, but only if the expression is ok-for-speculation or the 'Let' is for a join point. This means that the let can be floated around without difficulty. For example, this is OK: y::Int# = x +# 1# But this is not, as it may affect termination if the expression is floated out: y::Int# = fac 4# In this situation you should use @case@ rather than a @let@. The function 'GHC.Core.Utils.needsCaseBinding' can help you determine which to generate, or alternatively use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkCoreLet' rather than this constructor directly, which will generate a @case@ if necessary The let/app invariant is initially enforced by mkCoreLet and mkCoreApp in GHC.Core.Make. For discussion of some implications of the let/app invariant primops see Note [Checking versus non-checking primops] in GHC.Builtin.PrimOps. Note [Case expression invariants] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Case expressions are one of the more complicated elements of the Core language, and come with a number of invariants. All of them should be checked by Core Lint. 1. The list of alternatives may be empty; See Note [Empty case alternatives] 2. The 'DEFAULT' case alternative must be first in the list, if it occurs at all. Checked in GHC.Core.Lint.checkCaseAlts. 3. The remaining cases are in order of (strictly) increasing tag (for 'DataAlts') or lit (for 'LitAlts'). This makes finding the relevant constructor easy, and makes comparison easier too. Checked in GHC.Core.Lint.checkCaseAlts. 4. The list of alternatives must be exhaustive. An /exhaustive/ case does not necessarily mention all constructors: @ data Foo = Red | Green | Blue ... case x of Red -> True other -> f (case x of Green -> ... Blue -> ... ) ... @ The inner case does not need a @Red@ alternative, because @x@ can't be @Red@ at that program point. This is not checked by Core Lint -- it's very hard to do so. E.g. suppose that inner case was floated out, thus: let a = case x of Green -> ... Blue -> ... ) case x of Red -> True other -> f a Now it's really hard to see that the Green/Blue case is exhaustive. But it is. If you have a case-expression that really /isn't/ exhaustive, we may generate seg-faults. Consider the Green/Blue case above. Since there are only two branches we may generate code that tests for Green, and if not Green simply /assumes/ Blue (since, if the case is exhaustive, that's all that remains). Of course, if it's not Blue and we start fetching fields that should be in a Blue constructor, we may die horribly. See also Note [Core Lint guarantee] in GHC.Core.Lint. 5. Floating-point values must not be scrutinised against literals. See #9238 and Note [Rules for floating-point comparisons] in GHC.Core.Opt.ConstantFold for rationale. Checked in lintCaseExpr; see the call to isFloatingTy. 6. The 'ty' field of (Case scrut bndr ty alts) is the type of the /entire/ case expression. Checked in lintAltExpr. See also Note [Why does Case have a 'Type' field?]. 7. The type of the scrutinee must be the same as the type of the case binder, obviously. Checked in lintCaseExpr. 8. The multiplicity of the binders in constructor patterns must be the multiplicity of the corresponding field /scaled by the multiplicity of the case binder/. Checked in lintCoreAlt. Note [Core type and coercion invariant] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ We allow a /non-recursive/, /non-top-level/ let to bind type and coercion variables. These can be very convenient for postponing type substitutions until the next run of the simplifier. * A type variable binding must have a RHS of (Type ty) * A coercion variable binding must have a RHS of (Coercion co) It is possible to have terms that return a coercion, but we use case-binding for those; e.g. case (eq_sel d) of (co :: a ~# b) -> blah where eq_sel :: (a~b) -> (a~#b) Or even case (df @Int) of (co :: a ~# b) -> blah Which is very exotic, and I think never encountered; but see Note [Equality superclasses in quantified constraints] in GHC.Tc.Solver.Canonical Note [Core case invariants] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ See Note [Case expression invariants] Note [Levity polymorphism invariants] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The levity-polymorphism invariants are these (as per "Levity Polymorphism", PLDI '17): * The type of a term-binder must not be levity-polymorphic, unless it is a let(rec)-bound join point (see Note [Invariants on join points]) * The type of the argument of an App must not be levity-polymorphic. A type (t::TYPE r) is "levity polymorphic" if 'r' has any free variables. For example \(r::RuntimeRep). \(a::TYPE r). \(x::a). e is illegal because x's type has kind (TYPE r), which has 'r' free. See Note [Levity polymorphism checking] in GHC.HsToCore.Monad to see where these invariants are established for user-written code. Note [Core let goal] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ * The simplifier tries to ensure that if the RHS of a let is a constructor application, its arguments are trivial, so that the constructor can be inlined vigorously. Note [Empty case alternatives] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The alternatives of a case expression should be exhaustive. But this exhaustive list can be empty! * A case expression can have empty alternatives if (and only if) the scrutinee is bound to raise an exception or diverge. When do we know this? See Note [Bottoming expressions] in GHC.Core.Utils. * The possibility of empty alternatives is one reason we need a type on the case expression: if the alternatives are empty we can't get the type from the alternatives! * In the case of empty types (see Note [Bottoming expressions]), say data T we do NOT want to replace case (x::T) of Bool {} --> error Bool "Inaccessible case" because x might raise an exception, and *that*'s what we want to see! (#6067 is an example.) To preserve semantics we'd have to say x `seq` error Bool "Inaccessible case" but the 'seq' is just such a case, so we are back to square 1. * We can use the empty-alternative construct to coerce error values from one type to another. For example f :: Int -> Int f n = error "urk" g :: Int -> (# Char, Bool #) g x = case f x of { 0 -> ..., n -> ... } Then if we inline f in g's RHS we get case (error Int "urk") of (# Char, Bool #) { ... } and we can discard the alternatives since the scrutinee is bottom to give case (error Int "urk") of (# Char, Bool #) {} This is nicer than using an unsafe coerce between Int ~ (# Char,Bool #), if for no other reason that we don't need to instantiate the (~) at an unboxed type. * We treat a case expression with empty alternatives as trivial iff its scrutinee is (see GHC.Core.Utils.exprIsTrivial). This is actually important; see Note [Empty case is trivial] in GHC.Core.Utils * An empty case is replaced by its scrutinee during the CoreToStg conversion; remember STG is un-typed, so there is no need for the empty case to do the type conversion. Note [Join points] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ In Core, a *join point* is a specially tagged function whose only occurrences are saturated tail calls. A tail call can appear in these places: 1. In the branches (not the scrutinee) of a case 2. Underneath a let (value or join point) 3. Inside another join point We write a join-point declaration as join j @a @b x y = e1 in e2, like a let binding but with "join" instead (or "join rec" for "let rec"). Note that we put the parameters before the = rather than using lambdas; this is because it's relevant how many parameters the join point takes *as a join point.* This number is called the *join arity,* distinct from arity because it counts types as well as values. Note that a join point may return a lambda! So join j x = x + 1 is different from join j = \x -> x + 1 The former has join arity 1, while the latter has join arity 0. The identifier for a join point is called a join id or a *label.* An invocation is called a *jump.* We write a jump using the jump keyword: jump j 3 The words *label* and *jump* are evocative of assembly code (or Cmm) for a reason: join points are indeed compiled as labeled blocks, and jumps become actual jumps (plus argument passing and stack adjustment). There is no closure allocated and only a fraction of the function-call overhead. Hence we would like as many functions as possible to become join points (see OccurAnal) and the type rules for join points ensure we preserve the properties that make them efficient. In the actual AST, a join point is indicated by the IdDetails of the binder: a local value binding gets 'VanillaId' but a join point gets a 'JoinId' with its join arity. For more details, see the paper: Luke Maurer, Paul Downen, Zena Ariola, and Simon Peyton Jones. "Compiling without continuations." Submitted to PLDI'17. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/publication/compiling-without-continuations/ Note [Invariants on join points] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Join points must follow these invariants: 1. All occurrences must be tail calls. Each of these tail calls must pass the same number of arguments, counting both types and values; we call this the "join arity" (to distinguish from regular arity, which only counts values). See Note [Join points are less general than the paper] 2. For join arity n, the right-hand side must begin with at least n lambdas. No ticks, no casts, just lambdas! C.f. GHC.Core.Utils.joinRhsArity. 2a. Moreover, this same constraint applies to any unfolding of the binder. Reason: if we want to push a continuation into the RHS we must push it into the unfolding as well. 2b. The Arity (in the IdInfo) of a join point is the number of value binders in the top n lambdas, where n is the join arity. So arity <= join arity; the former counts only value binders while the latter counts all binders. e.g. Suppose $j has join arity 1 let j = \x y. e in case x of { A -> j 1; B -> j 2 } Then its ordinary arity is also 1, not 2. The arity of a join point isn't very important; but short of setting it to zero, it is helpful to have an invariant. E.g. #17294. See also Note [Do not eta-expand join points] in GHC.Core.Opt.Simplify.Utils. 3. If the binding is recursive, then all other bindings in the recursive group must also be join points. 4. The binding's type must not be polymorphic in its return type (as defined in Note [The polymorphism rule of join points]). However, join points have simpler invariants in other ways 5. A join point can have an unboxed type without the RHS being ok-for-speculation (i.e. drop the let/app invariant) e.g. let j :: Int# = factorial x in ... 6. A join point can have a levity-polymorphic RHS e.g. let j :: r :: TYPE l = fail void# in ... This happened in an intermediate program #13394 Examples: join j1 x = 1 + x in jump j (jump j x) -- Fails 1: non-tail call join j1' x = 1 + x in if even a then jump j1 a else jump j1 a b -- Fails 1: inconsistent calls join j2 x = flip (+) x in j2 1 2 -- Fails 2: not enough lambdas join j2' x = \y -> x + y in j3 1 -- Passes: extra lams ok join j @a (x :: a) = x -- Fails 4: polymorphic in ret type Invariant 1 applies to left-hand sides of rewrite rules, so a rule for a join point must have an exact call as its LHS. Strictly speaking, invariant 3 is redundant, since a call from inside a lazy binding isn't a tail call. Since a let-bound value can't invoke a free join point, then, they can't be mutually recursive. (A Core binding group *can* include spurious extra bindings if the occurrence analyser hasn't run, so invariant 3 does still need to be checked.) For the rigorous definition of "tail call", see Section 3 of the paper (Note [Join points]). Invariant 4 is subtle; see Note [The polymorphism rule of join points]. Invariant 6 is to enable code like this: f = \(r :: RuntimeRep) (a :: TYPE r) (x :: T). join j :: a j = error @r @a "bloop" in case x of A -> j B -> j C -> error @r @a "blurp" Core Lint will check these invariants, anticipating that any binder whose OccInfo is marked AlwaysTailCalled will become a join point as soon as the simplifier (or simpleOptPgm) runs. Note [Join points are less general than the paper] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ In the paper "Compiling without continuations", this expression is perfectly valid: join { j = \_ -> e } in (case blah of ) ( True -> j void# ) arg ( False -> blah ) assuming 'j' has arity 1. Here the call to 'j' does not look like a tail call, but actually everything is fine. See Section 3, "Managing \Delta" in the paper. In GHC, however, we adopt a slightly more restrictive subset, in which join point calls must be tail calls. I think we /could/ loosen it up, but in fact the simplifier ensures that we always get tail calls, and it makes the back end a bit easier I think. Generally, just less to think about; nothing deeper than that. Note [The type of a join point] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A join point has the same type it would have as a function. That is, if it takes an Int and a Bool and its body produces a String, its type is `Int -> Bool -> String`. Natural as this may seem, it can be awkward. A join point shouldn't be thought to "return" in the same sense a function does---a jump is one-way. This is crucial for understanding how case-of-case interacts with join points: case (join j :: Int -> Bool -> String j x y = ... in jump j z w) of "" -> True _ -> False The simplifier will pull the case into the join point (see Note [Join points and case-of-case] in GHC.Core.Opt.Simplify): join j :: Int -> Bool -> Bool -- changed! j x y = case ... of "" -> True _ -> False in jump j z w The body of the join point now returns a Bool, so the label `j` has to have its type updated accordingly, which is done by GHC.Core.Opt.Simplify.Env.adjustJoinPointType. Inconvenient though this may be, it has the advantage that 'GHC.Core.Utils.exprType' can still return a type for any expression, including a jump. Relationship to the paper This plan differs from the paper (see Note [Invariants on join points]). In the paper, we instead give j the type `Int -> Bool -> forall a. a`. Then each jump carries the "return type" as a parameter, exactly the way other non-returning functions like `error` work: case (join j :: Int -> Bool -> forall a. a j x y = ... in jump j z w @String) of "" -> True _ -> False Now we can move the case inward and we only have to change the jump: join j :: Int -> Bool -> forall a. a j x y = case ... of "" -> True _ -> False in jump j z w @Bool (Core Lint would still check that the body of the join point has the right type; that type would simply not be reflected in the join id.) Note [The polymorphism rule of join points] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Invariant 4 of Note [Invariants on join points] forbids a join point to be polymorphic in its return type. That is, if its type is forall a1 ... ak. t1 -> ... -> tn -> r where its join arity is k+n, none of the type parameters ai may occur free in r. In some way, this falls out of the fact that given join j @a1 ... @ak x1 ... xn = e1 in e2 then all calls to `j` are in tail-call positions of `e`, and expressions in tail-call positions in `e` have the same type as `e`. Therefore the type of `e1` -- the return type of the join point -- must be the same as the type of e2. Since the type variables aren't bound in `e2`, its type can't include them, and thus neither can the type of `e1`. This unfortunately prevents the `go` in the following code from being a join-point: iter :: forall a. Int -> (a -> a) -> a -> a iter @a n f x = go @a n f x where go :: forall a. Int -> (a -> a) -> a -> a go @a 0 _ x = x go @a n f x = go @a (n-1) f (f x) In this case, a static argument transformation would fix that (see ticket #14620): iter :: forall a. Int -> (a -> a) -> a -> a iter @a n f x = go' @a n f x where go' :: Int -> (a -> a) -> a -> a go' 0 _ x = x go' n f x = go' (n-1) f (f x) In general, loopification could be employed to do that (see #14068.) Can we simply drop the requirement, and allow `go` to be a join-point? We could, and it would work. But we could not longer apply the case-of-join-point transformation universally. This transformation would do: case (join go @a n f x = case n of 0 -> x n -> go @a (n-1) f (f x) in go @Bool n neg True) of True -> e1; False -> e2 ===> join go @a n f x = case n of 0 -> case x of True -> e1; False -> e2 n -> go @a (n-1) f (f x) in go @Bool n neg True but that is ill-typed, as `x` is type `a`, not `Bool`. This also justifies why we do not consider the `e` in `e |> co` to be in tail position: A cast changes the type, but the type must be the same. But operationally, casts are vacuous, so this is a bit unfortunate! See #14610 for ideas how to fix this. ************************************************************************ * * In/Out type synonyms * * ********************************************************************* -} {- Many passes apply a substitution, and it's very handy to have type synonyms to remind us whether or not the substitution has been applied -} -- Pre-cloning or substitution type InBndr = CoreBndr type InType = Type type InKind = Kind type InBind = CoreBind type InExpr = CoreExpr type InAlt = CoreAlt type InArg = CoreArg type InCoercion = Coercion -- Post-cloning or substitution type OutBndr = CoreBndr type OutType = Type type OutKind = Kind type OutCoercion = Coercion type OutBind = CoreBind type OutExpr = CoreExpr type OutAlt = CoreAlt type OutArg = CoreArg type MOutCoercion = MCoercion {- ************************************************************************ * * Orphans * * ************************************************************************ -} -- | Is this instance an orphan? If it is not an orphan, contains an 'OccName' -- witnessing the instance's non-orphanhood. -- See Note [Orphans] data IsOrphan = IsOrphan | NotOrphan OccName -- The OccName 'n' witnesses the instance's non-orphanhood -- In that case, the instance is fingerprinted as part -- of the definition of 'n's definition deriving Typeable IsOrphan IsOrphan -> DataType IsOrphan -> Constr (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> IsOrphan -> IsOrphan forall a. Typeable a -> (forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> a -> c a) -> (forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c a) -> (a -> Constr) -> (a -> DataType) -> (forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c a)) -> (forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c a)) -> ((forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> a -> a) -> (forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> a -> r) -> (forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> a -> r) -> (forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> a -> [u]) -> (forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> a -> u) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> (forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> a -> m a) -> Data a forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> IsOrphan -> u forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> IsOrphan -> [u] forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> IsOrphan -> r forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> IsOrphan -> r forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> IsOrphan -> m IsOrphan forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> IsOrphan -> m IsOrphan forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c IsOrphan forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> IsOrphan -> c IsOrphan forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c IsOrphan) forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c IsOrphan) gmapMo :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> IsOrphan -> m IsOrphan $cgmapMo :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> IsOrphan -> m IsOrphan gmapMp :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> IsOrphan -> m IsOrphan $cgmapMp :: forall (m :: * -> *). MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> IsOrphan -> m IsOrphan gmapM :: forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> IsOrphan -> m IsOrphan $cgmapM :: forall (m :: * -> *). Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> IsOrphan -> m IsOrphan gmapQi :: forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> IsOrphan -> u $cgmapQi :: forall u. ConTag -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> IsOrphan -> u gmapQ :: forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> IsOrphan -> [u] $cgmapQ :: forall u. (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> IsOrphan -> [u] gmapQr :: forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> IsOrphan -> r $cgmapQr :: forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> IsOrphan -> r gmapQl :: forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> IsOrphan -> r $cgmapQl :: forall r r'. (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> IsOrphan -> r gmapT :: (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> IsOrphan -> IsOrphan $cgmapT :: (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> IsOrphan -> IsOrphan dataCast2 :: forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c IsOrphan) $cdataCast2 :: forall (t :: * -> * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c IsOrphan) dataCast1 :: forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c IsOrphan) $cdataCast1 :: forall (t :: * -> *) (c :: * -> *). Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c IsOrphan) dataTypeOf :: IsOrphan -> DataType $cdataTypeOf :: IsOrphan -> DataType toConstr :: IsOrphan -> Constr $ctoConstr :: IsOrphan -> Constr gunfold :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c IsOrphan $cgunfold :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c IsOrphan gfoldl :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> IsOrphan -> c IsOrphan $cgfoldl :: forall (c :: * -> *). (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> IsOrphan -> c IsOrphan Data -- | Returns true if 'IsOrphan' is orphan. isOrphan :: IsOrphan -> Bool isOrphan :: IsOrphan -> Bool isOrphan IsOrphan IsOrphan = Bool True isOrphan IsOrphan _ = Bool False -- | Returns true if 'IsOrphan' is not an orphan. notOrphan :: IsOrphan -> Bool notOrphan :: IsOrphan -> Bool notOrphan NotOrphan{} = Bool True notOrphan IsOrphan _ = Bool False chooseOrphanAnchor :: NameSet -> IsOrphan -- Something (rule, instance) is relate to all the Names in this -- list. Choose one of them to be an "anchor" for the orphan. We make -- the choice deterministic to avoid gratuitous changes in the ABI -- hash (#4012). Specifically, use lexicographic comparison of -- OccName rather than comparing Uniques -- -- NB: 'minimum' use Ord, and (Ord OccName) works lexicographically -- chooseOrphanAnchor :: NameSet -> IsOrphan chooseOrphanAnchor NameSet local_names | NameSet -> Bool isEmptyNameSet NameSet local_names = IsOrphan IsOrphan | Bool otherwise = OccName -> IsOrphan NotOrphan (forall (t :: * -> *) a. (Foldable t, Ord a) => t a -> a minimum [OccName] occs) where occs :: [OccName] occs = forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map Name -> OccName nameOccName forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ forall elt. UniqSet elt -> [elt] nonDetEltsUniqSet NameSet local_names -- It's OK to use nonDetEltsUFM here, see comments above instance Binary IsOrphan where put_ :: BinHandle -> IsOrphan -> IO () put_ BinHandle bh IsOrphan IsOrphan = BinHandle -> Word8 -> IO () putByte BinHandle bh Word8 0 put_ BinHandle bh (NotOrphan OccName n) = do BinHandle -> Word8 -> IO () putByte BinHandle bh Word8 1 forall a. Binary a => BinHandle -> a -> IO () put_ BinHandle bh OccName n get :: BinHandle -> IO IsOrphan get BinHandle bh = do Word8 h <- BinHandle -> IO Word8 getByte BinHandle bh case Word8 h of Word8 0 -> forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return IsOrphan IsOrphan Word8 _ -> do OccName n <- forall a. Binary a => BinHandle -> IO a get BinHandle bh forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ OccName -> IsOrphan NotOrphan OccName n {- Note [Orphans] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Class instances, rules, and family instances are divided into orphans and non-orphans. Roughly speaking, an instance/rule is an orphan if its left hand side mentions nothing defined in this module. Orphan-hood has two major consequences * A module that contains orphans is called an "orphan module". If the module being compiled depends (transitively) on an orphan module M, then M.hi is read in regardless of whether M is otherwise needed. This is to ensure that we don't miss any instance decls in M. But it's painful, because it means we need to keep track of all the orphan modules below us. * A non-orphan is not finger-printed separately. Instead, for fingerprinting purposes it is treated as part of the entity it mentions on the LHS. For example data T = T1 | T2 instance Eq T where .... The instance (Eq T) is incorporated as part of T's fingerprint. In contrast, orphans are all fingerprinted together in the mi_orph_hash field of the ModIface. See GHC.Iface.Recomp.addFingerprints. Orphan-hood is computed * For class instances: when we make a ClsInst (because it is needed during instance lookup) * For rules and family instances: when we generate an IfaceRule (GHC.Iface.Make.coreRuleToIfaceRule) or IfaceFamInst (GHC.Iface.Make.instanceToIfaceInst) -} {- ************************************************************************ * * \subsection{Rewrite rules} * * ************************************************************************ The CoreRule type and its friends are dealt with mainly in GHC.Core.Rules, but GHC.Core.FVs, GHC.Core.Subst, GHC.Core.Ppr, GHC.Core.Tidy also inspect the representation. -} -- | Gathers a collection of 'CoreRule's. Maps (the name of) an 'Id' to its rules type RuleBase = NameEnv [CoreRule] -- The rules are unordered; -- we sort out any overlaps on lookup -- | A full rule environment which we can apply rules from. Like a 'RuleBase', -- but it also includes the set of visible orphans we use to filter out orphan -- rules which are not visible (even though we can see them...) data RuleEnv = RuleEnv { RuleEnv -> RuleBase re_base :: RuleBase , RuleEnv -> ModuleSet re_visible_orphs :: ModuleSet } mkRuleEnv :: RuleBase -> [Module] -> RuleEnv mkRuleEnv :: RuleBase -> [Module] -> RuleEnv mkRuleEnv RuleBase rules [Module] vis_orphs = RuleBase -> ModuleSet -> RuleEnv RuleEnv RuleBase rules ([Module] -> ModuleSet mkModuleSet [Module] vis_orphs) emptyRuleEnv :: RuleEnv emptyRuleEnv :: RuleEnv emptyRuleEnv = RuleBase -> ModuleSet -> RuleEnv RuleEnv forall a. NameEnv a emptyNameEnv ModuleSet emptyModuleSet -- | A 'CoreRule' is: -- -- * \"Local\" if the function it is a rule for is defined in the -- same module as the rule itself. -- -- * \"Orphan\" if nothing on the LHS is defined in the same module -- as the rule itself data CoreRule = Rule { CoreRule -> RuleName ru_name :: RuleName, -- ^ Name of the rule, for communication with the user CoreRule -> Activation ru_act :: Activation, -- ^ When the rule is active -- Rough-matching stuff -- see comments with InstEnv.ClsInst( is_cls, is_rough ) CoreRule -> Name ru_fn :: Name, -- ^ Name of the 'GHC.Types.Id.Id' at the head of this rule CoreRule -> [Maybe Name] ru_rough :: [Maybe Name], -- ^ Name at the head of each argument to the left hand side -- Proper-matching stuff -- see comments with InstEnv.ClsInst( is_tvs, is_tys ) CoreRule -> [Id] ru_bndrs :: [CoreBndr], -- ^ Variables quantified over CoreRule -> [CoreExpr] ru_args :: [CoreExpr], -- ^ Left hand side arguments -- And the right-hand side CoreRule -> CoreExpr ru_rhs :: CoreExpr, -- ^ Right hand side of the rule -- Occurrence info is guaranteed correct -- See Note [OccInfo in unfoldings and rules] -- Locality CoreRule -> Bool ru_auto :: Bool, -- ^ @True@ <=> this rule is auto-generated -- (notably by Specialise or SpecConstr) -- @False@ <=> generated at the user's behest -- See Note [Trimming auto-rules] in "GHC.Iface.Tidy" -- for the sole purpose of this field. CoreRule -> Module ru_origin :: !Module, -- ^ 'Module' the rule was defined in, used -- to test if we should see an orphan rule. CoreRule -> IsOrphan ru_orphan :: !IsOrphan, -- ^ Whether or not the rule is an orphan. CoreRule -> Bool ru_local :: Bool -- ^ @True@ iff the fn at the head of the rule is -- defined in the same module as the rule -- and is not an implicit 'Id' (like a record selector, -- class operation, or data constructor). This -- is different from 'ru_orphan', where a rule -- can avoid being an orphan if *any* Name in -- LHS of the rule was defined in the same -- module as the rule. } -- | Built-in rules are used for constant folding -- and suchlike. They have no free variables. -- A built-in rule is always visible (there is no such thing as -- an orphan built-in rule.) | BuiltinRule { ru_name :: RuleName, -- ^ As above ru_fn :: Name, -- ^ As above CoreRule -> ConTag ru_nargs :: Int, -- ^ Number of arguments that 'ru_try' consumes, -- if it fires, including type arguments CoreRule -> RuleFun ru_try :: RuleFun -- ^ This function does the rewrite. It given too many -- arguments, it simply discards them; the returned 'CoreExpr' -- is just the rewrite of 'ru_fn' applied to the first 'ru_nargs' args } -- See Note [Extra args in rule matching] in GHC.Core.Rules -- | Rule options data RuleOpts = RuleOpts { RuleOpts -> Platform roPlatform :: !Platform -- ^ Target platform , RuleOpts -> Bool roNumConstantFolding :: !Bool -- ^ Enable more advanced numeric constant folding , RuleOpts -> Bool roExcessRationalPrecision :: !Bool -- ^ Cut down precision of Rational values to that of Float/Double if disabled , RuleOpts -> Bool roBignumRules :: !Bool -- ^ Enable rules for bignums } type RuleFun = RuleOpts -> InScopeEnv -> Id -> [CoreExpr] -> Maybe CoreExpr type InScopeEnv = (InScopeSet, IdUnfoldingFun) type IdUnfoldingFun = Id -> Unfolding -- A function that embodies how to unfold an Id if you need -- to do that in the Rule. The reason we need to pass this info in -- is that whether an Id is unfoldable depends on the simplifier phase isBuiltinRule :: CoreRule -> Bool isBuiltinRule :: CoreRule -> Bool isBuiltinRule (BuiltinRule {}) = Bool True isBuiltinRule CoreRule _ = Bool False isAutoRule :: CoreRule -> Bool isAutoRule :: CoreRule -> Bool isAutoRule (BuiltinRule {}) = Bool False isAutoRule (Rule { ru_auto :: CoreRule -> Bool ru_auto = Bool is_auto }) = Bool is_auto -- | The number of arguments the 'ru_fn' must be applied -- to before the rule can match on it ruleArity :: CoreRule -> Int ruleArity :: CoreRule -> ConTag ruleArity (BuiltinRule {ru_nargs :: CoreRule -> ConTag ru_nargs = ConTag n}) = ConTag n ruleArity (Rule {ru_args :: CoreRule -> [CoreExpr] ru_args = [CoreExpr] args}) = forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> ConTag length [CoreExpr] args ruleName :: CoreRule -> RuleName ruleName :: CoreRule -> RuleName ruleName = CoreRule -> RuleName ru_name ruleModule :: CoreRule -> Maybe Module ruleModule :: CoreRule -> Maybe Module ruleModule Rule { Module ru_origin :: Module ru_origin :: CoreRule -> Module ru_origin } = forall a. a -> Maybe a Just Module ru_origin ruleModule BuiltinRule {} = forall a. Maybe a Nothing ruleActivation :: CoreRule -> Activation ruleActivation :: CoreRule -> Activation ruleActivation (BuiltinRule { }) = Activation AlwaysActive ruleActivation (Rule { ru_act :: CoreRule -> Activation ru_act = Activation act }) = Activation act -- | The 'Name' of the 'GHC.Types.Id.Id' at the head of the rule left hand side ruleIdName :: CoreRule -> Name ruleIdName :: CoreRule -> Name ruleIdName = CoreRule -> Name ru_fn isLocalRule :: CoreRule -> Bool isLocalRule :: CoreRule -> Bool isLocalRule = CoreRule -> Bool ru_local -- | Set the 'Name' of the 'GHC.Types.Id.Id' at the head of the rule left hand side setRuleIdName :: Name -> CoreRule -> CoreRule setRuleIdName :: Name -> CoreRule -> CoreRule setRuleIdName Name nm CoreRule ru = CoreRule ru { ru_fn :: Name ru_fn = Name nm } {- ************************************************************************ * * Unfoldings * * ************************************************************************ The @Unfolding@ type is declared here to avoid numerous loops -} -- | Records the /unfolding/ of an identifier, which is approximately the form the -- identifier would have if we substituted its definition in for the identifier. -- This type should be treated as abstract everywhere except in "GHC.Core.Unfold" data Unfolding = NoUnfolding -- ^ We have no information about the unfolding. | BootUnfolding -- ^ We have no information about the unfolding, because -- this 'Id' came from an @hi-boot@ file. -- See Note [Inlining and hs-boot files] in "GHC.CoreToIface" -- for what this is used for. | OtherCon [AltCon] -- ^ It ain't one of these constructors. -- @OtherCon xs@ also indicates that something has been evaluated -- and hence there's no point in re-evaluating it. -- @OtherCon []@ is used even for non-data-type values -- to indicated evaluated-ness. Notably: -- -- > data C = C !(Int -> Int) -- > case x of { C f -> ... } -- -- Here, @f@ gets an @OtherCon []@ unfolding. | DFunUnfolding { -- The Unfolding of a DFunId -- See Note [DFun unfoldings] -- df = /\a1..am. \d1..dn. MkD t1 .. tk -- (op1 a1..am d1..dn) -- (op2 a1..am d1..dn) Unfolding -> [Id] df_bndrs :: [Var], -- The bound variables [a1..m],[d1..dn] Unfolding -> DataCon df_con :: DataCon, -- The dictionary data constructor (never a newtype datacon) Unfolding -> [CoreExpr] df_args :: [CoreExpr] -- Args of the data con: types, superclasses and methods, } -- in positional order | CoreUnfolding { -- An unfolding for an Id with no pragma, -- or perhaps a NOINLINE pragma -- (For NOINLINE, the phase, if any, is in the -- InlinePragInfo for this Id.) Unfolding -> CoreExpr uf_tmpl :: CoreExpr, -- Template; occurrence info is correct Unfolding -> UnfoldingSource uf_src :: UnfoldingSource, -- Where the unfolding came from Unfolding -> Bool uf_is_top :: Bool, -- True <=> top level binding Unfolding -> Bool uf_is_value :: Bool, -- exprIsHNF template (cached); it is ok to discard -- a `seq` on this variable Unfolding -> Bool uf_is_conlike :: Bool, -- True <=> applicn of constructor or CONLIKE function -- Cached version of exprIsConLike Unfolding -> Bool uf_is_work_free :: Bool, -- True <=> doesn't waste (much) work to expand -- inside an inlining -- Cached version of exprIsCheap Unfolding -> Bool uf_expandable :: Bool, -- True <=> can expand in RULE matching -- Cached version of exprIsExpandable Unfolding -> UnfoldingGuidance uf_guidance :: UnfoldingGuidance -- Tells about the *size* of the template. } -- ^ An unfolding with redundant cached information. Parameters: -- -- uf_tmpl: Template used to perform unfolding; -- NB: Occurrence info is guaranteed correct: -- see Note [OccInfo in unfoldings and rules] -- -- uf_is_top: Is this a top level binding? -- -- uf_is_value: 'exprIsHNF' template (cached); it is ok to discard a 'seq' on -- this variable -- -- uf_is_work_free: Does this waste only a little work if we expand it inside an inlining? -- Basically this is a cached version of 'exprIsWorkFree' -- -- uf_guidance: Tells us about the /size/ of the unfolding template ------------------------------------------------ data UnfoldingSource = -- See also Note [Historical note: unfoldings for wrappers] InlineRhs -- The current rhs of the function -- Replace uf_tmpl each time around | InlineStable -- From an INLINE or INLINABLE pragma -- INLINE if guidance is UnfWhen -- INLINABLE if guidance is UnfIfGoodArgs/UnfoldNever -- (well, technically an INLINABLE might be made -- UnfWhen if it was small enough, and then -- it will behave like INLINE outside the current -- module, but that is the way automatic unfoldings -- work so it is consistent with the intended -- meaning of INLINABLE). -- -- uf_tmpl may change, but only as a result of -- gentle simplification, it doesn't get updated -- to the current RHS during compilation as with -- InlineRhs. -- -- See Note [InlineStable] | InlineCompulsory -- Something that *has* no binding, so you *must* inline it -- Only a few primop-like things have this property -- (see "GHC.Types.Id.Make", calls to mkCompulsoryUnfolding). -- Inline absolutely always, however boring the context. -- | 'UnfoldingGuidance' says when unfolding should take place data UnfoldingGuidance = UnfWhen { -- Inline without thinking about the *size* of the uf_tmpl -- Used (a) for small *and* cheap unfoldings -- (b) for INLINE functions -- See Note [INLINE for small functions] in GHC.Core.Unfold UnfoldingGuidance -> ConTag ug_arity :: Arity, -- Number of value arguments expected UnfoldingGuidance -> Bool ug_unsat_ok :: Bool, -- True <=> ok to inline even if unsaturated UnfoldingGuidance -> Bool ug_boring_ok :: Bool -- True <=> ok to inline even if the context is boring -- So True,True means "always" } | UnfIfGoodArgs { -- Arose from a normal Id; the info here is the -- result of a simple analysis of the RHS UnfoldingGuidance -> [ConTag] ug_args :: [Int], -- Discount if the argument is evaluated. -- (i.e., a simplification will definitely -- be possible). One elt of the list per *value* arg. UnfoldingGuidance -> ConTag ug_size :: Int, -- The "size" of the unfolding. UnfoldingGuidance -> ConTag ug_res :: Int -- Scrutinee discount: the discount to subtract if the thing is in } -- a context (case (thing args) of ...), -- (where there are the right number of arguments.) | UnfNever -- The RHS is big, so don't inline it deriving (UnfoldingGuidance -> UnfoldingGuidance -> Bool forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> (a -> a -> Bool) -> Eq a /= :: UnfoldingGuidance -> UnfoldingGuidance -> Bool $c/= :: UnfoldingGuidance -> UnfoldingGuidance -> Bool == :: UnfoldingGuidance -> UnfoldingGuidance -> Bool $c== :: UnfoldingGuidance -> UnfoldingGuidance -> Bool Eq) {- Note [Historical note: unfoldings for wrappers] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ We used to have a nice clever scheme in interface files for wrappers. A wrapper's unfolding can be reconstructed from its worker's id and its strictness. This decreased .hi file size (sometimes significantly, for modules like GHC.Classes with many high-arity w/w splits) and had a slight corresponding effect on compile times. However, when we added the second demand analysis, this scheme lead to some Core lint errors. The second analysis could change the strictness signatures, which sometimes resulted in a wrapper's regenerated unfolding applying the wrapper to too many arguments. Instead of repairing the clever .hi scheme, we abandoned it in favor of simplicity. The .hi sizes are usually insignificant (excluding the +1M for base libraries), and compile time barely increases (~+1% for nofib). The nicer upshot is that the UnfoldingSource no longer mentions an Id, so, eg, substitutions need not traverse them. Note [DFun unfoldings] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The Arity in a DFunUnfolding is total number of args (type and value) that the DFun needs to produce a dictionary. That's not necessarily related to the ordinary arity of the dfun Id, esp if the class has one method, so the dictionary is represented by a newtype. Example class C a where { op :: a -> Int } instance C a -> C [a] where op xs = op (head xs) The instance translates to $dfCList :: forall a. C a => C [a] -- Arity 2! $dfCList = /\a.\d. $copList {a} d |> co $copList :: forall a. C a => [a] -> Int -- Arity 2! $copList = /\a.\d.\xs. op {a} d (head xs) Now we might encounter (op (dfCList {ty} d) a1 a2) and we want the (op (dfList {ty} d)) rule to fire, because $dfCList has all its arguments, even though its (value) arity is 2. That's why we record the number of expected arguments in the DFunUnfolding. Note that although it's an Arity, it's most convenient for it to give the *total* number of arguments, both type and value. See the use site in exprIsConApp_maybe. -} -- Constants for the UnfWhen constructor needSaturated, unSaturatedOk :: Bool needSaturated :: Bool needSaturated = Bool False unSaturatedOk :: Bool unSaturatedOk = Bool True boringCxtNotOk, boringCxtOk :: Bool boringCxtOk :: Bool boringCxtOk = Bool True boringCxtNotOk :: Bool boringCxtNotOk = Bool False ------------------------------------------------ noUnfolding :: Unfolding -- ^ There is no known 'Unfolding' evaldUnfolding :: Unfolding -- ^ This unfolding marks the associated thing as being evaluated noUnfolding :: Unfolding noUnfolding = Unfolding NoUnfolding evaldUnfolding :: Unfolding evaldUnfolding = [AltCon] -> Unfolding OtherCon [] -- | There is no known 'Unfolding', because this came from an -- hi-boot file. bootUnfolding :: Unfolding bootUnfolding :: Unfolding bootUnfolding = Unfolding BootUnfolding mkOtherCon :: [AltCon] -> Unfolding mkOtherCon :: [AltCon] -> Unfolding mkOtherCon = [AltCon] -> Unfolding OtherCon isStableSource :: UnfoldingSource -> Bool -- Keep the unfolding template isStableSource :: UnfoldingSource -> Bool isStableSource UnfoldingSource InlineCompulsory = Bool True isStableSource UnfoldingSource InlineStable = Bool True isStableSource UnfoldingSource InlineRhs = Bool False -- | Retrieves the template of an unfolding: panics if none is known unfoldingTemplate :: Unfolding -> CoreExpr unfoldingTemplate :: Unfolding -> CoreExpr unfoldingTemplate = Unfolding -> CoreExpr uf_tmpl -- | Retrieves the template of an unfolding if possible -- maybeUnfoldingTemplate is used mainly wnen specialising, and we do -- want to specialise DFuns, so it's important to return a template -- for DFunUnfoldings maybeUnfoldingTemplate :: Unfolding -> Maybe CoreExpr maybeUnfoldingTemplate :: Unfolding -> Maybe CoreExpr maybeUnfoldingTemplate (CoreUnfolding { uf_tmpl :: Unfolding -> CoreExpr uf_tmpl = CoreExpr expr }) = forall a. a -> Maybe a Just CoreExpr expr maybeUnfoldingTemplate (DFunUnfolding { df_bndrs :: Unfolding -> [Id] df_bndrs = [Id] bndrs, df_con :: Unfolding -> DataCon df_con = DataCon con, df_args :: Unfolding -> [CoreExpr] df_args = [CoreExpr] args }) = forall a. a -> Maybe a Just (forall b. [b] -> Expr b -> Expr b mkLams [Id] bndrs (forall b. Expr b -> [Expr b] -> Expr b mkApps (forall b. Id -> Expr b Var (DataCon -> Id dataConWorkId DataCon con)) [CoreExpr] args)) maybeUnfoldingTemplate Unfolding _ = forall a. Maybe a Nothing -- | The constructors that the unfolding could never be: -- returns @[]@ if no information is available otherCons :: Unfolding -> [AltCon] otherCons :: Unfolding -> [AltCon] otherCons (OtherCon [AltCon] cons) = [AltCon] cons otherCons Unfolding _ = [] -- | Determines if it is certainly the case that the unfolding will -- yield a value (something in HNF): returns @False@ if unsure isValueUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool -- Returns False for OtherCon isValueUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isValueUnfolding (CoreUnfolding { uf_is_value :: Unfolding -> Bool uf_is_value = Bool is_evald }) = Bool is_evald isValueUnfolding Unfolding _ = Bool False -- | Determines if it possibly the case that the unfolding will -- yield a value. Unlike 'isValueUnfolding' it returns @True@ -- for 'OtherCon' isEvaldUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool -- Returns True for OtherCon isEvaldUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isEvaldUnfolding (OtherCon [AltCon] _) = Bool True isEvaldUnfolding (CoreUnfolding { uf_is_value :: Unfolding -> Bool uf_is_value = Bool is_evald }) = Bool is_evald isEvaldUnfolding Unfolding _ = Bool False -- | @True@ if the unfolding is a constructor application, the application -- of a CONLIKE function or 'OtherCon' isConLikeUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isConLikeUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isConLikeUnfolding (OtherCon [AltCon] _) = Bool True isConLikeUnfolding (CoreUnfolding { uf_is_conlike :: Unfolding -> Bool uf_is_conlike = Bool con }) = Bool con isConLikeUnfolding Unfolding _ = Bool False -- | Is the thing we will unfold into certainly cheap? isCheapUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isCheapUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isCheapUnfolding (CoreUnfolding { uf_is_work_free :: Unfolding -> Bool uf_is_work_free = Bool is_wf }) = Bool is_wf isCheapUnfolding Unfolding _ = Bool False isExpandableUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isExpandableUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isExpandableUnfolding (CoreUnfolding { uf_expandable :: Unfolding -> Bool uf_expandable = Bool is_expable }) = Bool is_expable isExpandableUnfolding Unfolding _ = Bool False expandUnfolding_maybe :: Unfolding -> Maybe CoreExpr -- Expand an expandable unfolding; this is used in rule matching -- See Note [Expanding variables] in GHC.Core.Rules -- The key point here is that CONLIKE things can be expanded expandUnfolding_maybe :: Unfolding -> Maybe CoreExpr expandUnfolding_maybe (CoreUnfolding { uf_expandable :: Unfolding -> Bool uf_expandable = Bool True, uf_tmpl :: Unfolding -> CoreExpr uf_tmpl = CoreExpr rhs }) = forall a. a -> Maybe a Just CoreExpr rhs expandUnfolding_maybe Unfolding _ = forall a. Maybe a Nothing isCompulsoryUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isCompulsoryUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isCompulsoryUnfolding (CoreUnfolding { uf_src :: Unfolding -> UnfoldingSource uf_src = UnfoldingSource InlineCompulsory }) = Bool True isCompulsoryUnfolding Unfolding _ = Bool False isStableUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool -- True of unfoldings that should not be overwritten -- by a CoreUnfolding for the RHS of a let-binding isStableUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isStableUnfolding (CoreUnfolding { uf_src :: Unfolding -> UnfoldingSource uf_src = UnfoldingSource src }) = UnfoldingSource -> Bool isStableSource UnfoldingSource src isStableUnfolding (DFunUnfolding {}) = Bool True isStableUnfolding Unfolding _ = Bool False -- | Only returns False if there is no unfolding information available at all hasSomeUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool hasSomeUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool hasSomeUnfolding Unfolding NoUnfolding = Bool False hasSomeUnfolding Unfolding BootUnfolding = Bool False hasSomeUnfolding Unfolding _ = Bool True isBootUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isBootUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool isBootUnfolding Unfolding BootUnfolding = Bool True isBootUnfolding Unfolding _ = Bool False neverUnfoldGuidance :: UnfoldingGuidance -> Bool neverUnfoldGuidance :: UnfoldingGuidance -> Bool neverUnfoldGuidance UnfoldingGuidance UnfNever = Bool True neverUnfoldGuidance UnfoldingGuidance _ = Bool False hasCoreUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool -- An unfolding "has Core" if it contains a Core expression, which -- may mention free variables. See Note [Fragile unfoldings] hasCoreUnfolding :: Unfolding -> Bool hasCoreUnfolding (CoreUnfolding {}) = Bool True hasCoreUnfolding (DFunUnfolding {}) = Bool True hasCoreUnfolding Unfolding _ = Bool False -- NoUnfolding, BootUnfolding, OtherCon have no Core canUnfold :: Unfolding -> Bool canUnfold :: Unfolding -> Bool canUnfold (CoreUnfolding { uf_guidance :: Unfolding -> UnfoldingGuidance uf_guidance = UnfoldingGuidance g }) = Bool -> Bool not (UnfoldingGuidance -> Bool neverUnfoldGuidance UnfoldingGuidance g) canUnfold Unfolding _ = Bool False {- Note [Fragile unfoldings] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ An unfolding is "fragile" if it mentions free variables (and hence would need substitution) or might be affected by optimisation. The non-fragile ones are NoUnfolding, BootUnfolding OtherCon {} If we know this binder (say a lambda binder) will be bound to an evaluated thing, we want to retain that info in simpleOptExpr; see #13077. We consider even a StableUnfolding as fragile, because it needs substitution. Note [InlineStable] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When you say {-# INLINE f #-} f x = <rhs> you intend that calls (f e) are replaced by <rhs>[e/x] So we should capture (\x.<rhs>) in the Unfolding of 'f', and never meddle with it. Meanwhile, we can optimise <rhs> to our heart's content, leaving the original unfolding intact in Unfolding of 'f'. For example all xs = foldr (&&) True xs any p = all . map p {-# INLINE any #-} We optimise any's RHS fully, but leave the InlineRule saying "all . map p", which deforests well at the call site. So INLINE pragma gives rise to an InlineRule, which captures the original RHS. Moreover, it's only used when 'f' is applied to the specified number of arguments; that is, the number of argument on the LHS of the '=' sign in the original source definition. For example, (.) is now defined in the libraries like this {-# INLINE (.) #-} (.) f g = \x -> f (g x) so that it'll inline when applied to two arguments. If 'x' appeared on the left, thus (.) f g x = f (g x) it'd only inline when applied to three arguments. This slightly-experimental change was requested by Roman, but it seems to make sense. See also Note [Inlining an InlineRule] in GHC.Core.Unfold. Note [OccInfo in unfoldings and rules] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ In unfoldings and rules, we guarantee that the template is occ-analysed, so that the occurrence info on the binders is correct. This is important, because the Simplifier does not re-analyse the template when using it. If the occurrence info is wrong - We may get more simplifier iterations than necessary, because once-occ info isn't there - More seriously, we may get an infinite loop if there's a Rec without a loop breaker marked ************************************************************************ * * AltCon * * ************************************************************************ -} -- The Ord is needed for the FiniteMap used in the lookForConstructor -- in GHC.Core.Opt.Simplify.Env. If you declared that lookForConstructor -- *ignores* constructor-applications with LitArg args, then you could get rid -- of this Ord. instance Outputable AltCon where ppr :: AltCon -> SDoc ppr (DataAlt DataCon dc) = forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr DataCon dc ppr (LitAlt Literal lit) = forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Literal lit ppr AltCon DEFAULT = String -> SDoc text String "__DEFAULT" cmpAlt :: Alt a -> Alt a -> Ordering cmpAlt :: forall a. Alt a -> Alt a -> Ordering cmpAlt (Alt AltCon con1 [a] _ Expr a _) (Alt AltCon con2 [a] _ Expr a _) = AltCon con1 AltCon -> AltCon -> Ordering `cmpAltCon` AltCon con2 ltAlt :: Alt a -> Alt a -> Bool ltAlt :: forall a. Alt a -> Alt a -> Bool ltAlt Alt a a1 Alt a a2 = (Alt a a1 forall a. Alt a -> Alt a -> Ordering `cmpAlt` Alt a a2) forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool == Ordering LT cmpAltCon :: AltCon -> AltCon -> Ordering -- ^ Compares 'AltCon's within a single list of alternatives -- DEFAULT comes out smallest, so that sorting by AltCon puts -- alternatives in the order required: see Note [Case expression invariants] cmpAltCon :: AltCon -> AltCon -> Ordering cmpAltCon AltCon DEFAULT AltCon DEFAULT = Ordering EQ cmpAltCon AltCon DEFAULT AltCon _ = Ordering LT cmpAltCon (DataAlt DataCon d1) (DataAlt DataCon d2) = DataCon -> ConTag dataConTag DataCon d1 forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Ordering `compare` DataCon -> ConTag dataConTag DataCon d2 cmpAltCon (DataAlt DataCon _) AltCon DEFAULT = Ordering GT cmpAltCon (LitAlt Literal l1) (LitAlt Literal l2) = Literal l1 forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Ordering `compare` Literal l2 cmpAltCon (LitAlt Literal _) AltCon DEFAULT = Ordering GT cmpAltCon AltCon con1 AltCon con2 = WARN( True, text "Comparing incomparable AltCons" <+> ppr con1 <+> ppr con2 ) Ordering LT {- ************************************************************************ * * \subsection{Useful synonyms} * * ************************************************************************ Note [CoreProgram] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The top level bindings of a program, a CoreProgram, are represented as a list of CoreBind * Later bindings in the list can refer to earlier ones, but not vice versa. So this is OK NonRec { x = 4 } Rec { p = ...q...x... ; q = ...p...x } Rec { f = ...p..x..f.. } NonRec { g = ..f..q...x.. } But it would NOT be ok for 'f' to refer to 'g'. * The occurrence analyser does strongly-connected component analysis on each Rec binding, and splits it into a sequence of smaller bindings where possible. So the program typically starts life as a single giant Rec, which is then dependency-analysed into smaller chunks. -} -- If you edit this type, you may need to update the GHC formalism -- See Note [GHC Formalism] in GHC.Core.Lint type CoreProgram = [CoreBind] -- See Note [CoreProgram] -- | The common case for the type of binders and variables when -- we are manipulating the Core language within GHC type CoreBndr = Var -- | Expressions where binders are 'CoreBndr's type CoreExpr = Expr CoreBndr -- | Argument expressions where binders are 'CoreBndr's type CoreArg = Arg CoreBndr -- | Binding groups where binders are 'CoreBndr's type CoreBind = Bind CoreBndr -- | Case alternatives where binders are 'CoreBndr's type CoreAlt = Alt CoreBndr {- ************************************************************************ * * \subsection{Tagging} * * ************************************************************************ -} -- | Binders are /tagged/ with a t data TaggedBndr t = TB CoreBndr t -- TB for "tagged binder" type TaggedBind t = Bind (TaggedBndr t) type TaggedExpr t = Expr (TaggedBndr t) type TaggedArg t = Arg (TaggedBndr t) type TaggedAlt t = Alt (TaggedBndr t) instance Outputable b => Outputable (TaggedBndr b) where ppr :: TaggedBndr b -> SDoc ppr (TB Id b b l) = Char -> SDoc char Char '<' SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc <> forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Id b SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc <> SDoc comma SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc <> forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr b l SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc <> Char -> SDoc char Char '>' deTagExpr :: TaggedExpr t -> CoreExpr deTagExpr :: forall t. TaggedExpr t -> CoreExpr deTagExpr (Var Id v) = forall b. Id -> Expr b Var Id v deTagExpr (Lit Literal l) = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit Literal l deTagExpr (Type Type ty) = forall b. Type -> Expr b Type Type ty deTagExpr (Coercion CoercionR co) = forall b. CoercionR -> Expr b Coercion CoercionR co deTagExpr (App Expr (TaggedBndr t) e1 Expr (TaggedBndr t) e2) = forall b. Expr b -> Expr b -> Expr b App (forall t. TaggedExpr t -> CoreExpr deTagExpr Expr (TaggedBndr t) e1) (forall t. TaggedExpr t -> CoreExpr deTagExpr Expr (TaggedBndr t) e2) deTagExpr (Lam (TB Id b t _) Expr (TaggedBndr t) e) = forall b. b -> Expr b -> Expr b Lam Id b (forall t. TaggedExpr t -> CoreExpr deTagExpr Expr (TaggedBndr t) e) deTagExpr (Let Bind (TaggedBndr t) bind Expr (TaggedBndr t) body) = forall b. Bind b -> Expr b -> Expr b Let (forall t. TaggedBind t -> CoreBind deTagBind Bind (TaggedBndr t) bind) (forall t. TaggedExpr t -> CoreExpr deTagExpr Expr (TaggedBndr t) body) deTagExpr (Case Expr (TaggedBndr t) e (TB Id b t _) Type ty [Alt (TaggedBndr t)] alts) = forall b. Expr b -> b -> Type -> [Alt b] -> Expr b Case (forall t. TaggedExpr t -> CoreExpr deTagExpr Expr (TaggedBndr t) e) Id b Type ty (forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map forall t. TaggedAlt t -> CoreAlt deTagAlt [Alt (TaggedBndr t)] alts) deTagExpr (Tick CoreTickish t Expr (TaggedBndr t) e) = forall b. CoreTickish -> Expr b -> Expr b Tick CoreTickish t (forall t. TaggedExpr t -> CoreExpr deTagExpr Expr (TaggedBndr t) e) deTagExpr (Cast Expr (TaggedBndr t) e CoercionR co) = forall b. Expr b -> CoercionR -> Expr b Cast (forall t. TaggedExpr t -> CoreExpr deTagExpr Expr (TaggedBndr t) e) CoercionR co deTagBind :: TaggedBind t -> CoreBind deTagBind :: forall t. TaggedBind t -> CoreBind deTagBind (NonRec (TB Id b t _) Expr (TaggedBndr t) rhs) = forall b. b -> Expr b -> Bind b NonRec Id b (forall t. TaggedExpr t -> CoreExpr deTagExpr Expr (TaggedBndr t) rhs) deTagBind (Rec [(TaggedBndr t, Expr (TaggedBndr t))] prs) = forall b. [(b, Expr b)] -> Bind b Rec [(Id b, forall t. TaggedExpr t -> CoreExpr deTagExpr Expr (TaggedBndr t) rhs) | (TB Id b t _, Expr (TaggedBndr t) rhs) <- [(TaggedBndr t, Expr (TaggedBndr t))] prs] deTagAlt :: TaggedAlt t -> CoreAlt deTagAlt :: forall t. TaggedAlt t -> CoreAlt deTagAlt (Alt AltCon con [TaggedBndr t] bndrs Expr (TaggedBndr t) rhs) = forall b. AltCon -> [b] -> Expr b -> Alt b Alt AltCon con [Id b | TB Id b t _ <- [TaggedBndr t] bndrs] (forall t. TaggedExpr t -> CoreExpr deTagExpr Expr (TaggedBndr t) rhs) {- ************************************************************************ * * \subsection{Core-constructing functions with checking} * * ************************************************************************ -} -- | Apply a list of argument expressions to a function expression in a nested fashion. Prefer to -- use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkCoreApps' if possible mkApps :: Expr b -> [Arg b] -> Expr b -- | Apply a list of type argument expressions to a function expression in a nested fashion mkTyApps :: Expr b -> [Type] -> Expr b -- | Apply a list of coercion argument expressions to a function expression in a nested fashion mkCoApps :: Expr b -> [Coercion] -> Expr b -- | Apply a list of type or value variables to a function expression in a nested fashion mkVarApps :: Expr b -> [Var] -> Expr b -- | Apply a list of argument expressions to a data constructor in a nested fashion. Prefer to -- use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkCoreConApps' if possible mkConApp :: DataCon -> [Arg b] -> Expr b mkApps :: forall b. Expr b -> [Expr b] -> Expr b mkApps Expr b f [Expr b] args = forall (t :: * -> *) b a. Foldable t => (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldl' forall b. Expr b -> Expr b -> Expr b App Expr b f [Expr b] args mkCoApps :: forall b. Expr b -> [CoercionR] -> Expr b mkCoApps Expr b f [CoercionR] args = forall (t :: * -> *) b a. Foldable t => (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldl' (\ Expr b e CoercionR a -> forall b. Expr b -> Expr b -> Expr b App Expr b e (forall b. CoercionR -> Expr b Coercion CoercionR a)) Expr b f [CoercionR] args mkVarApps :: forall b. Expr b -> [Id] -> Expr b mkVarApps Expr b f [Id] vars = forall (t :: * -> *) b a. Foldable t => (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldl' (\ Expr b e Id a -> forall b. Expr b -> Expr b -> Expr b App Expr b e (forall b. Id -> Expr b varToCoreExpr Id a)) Expr b f [Id] vars mkConApp :: forall b. DataCon -> [Arg b] -> Arg b mkConApp DataCon con [Arg b] args = forall b. Expr b -> [Expr b] -> Expr b mkApps (forall b. Id -> Expr b Var (DataCon -> Id dataConWorkId DataCon con)) [Arg b] args mkTyApps :: forall b. Expr b -> [Type] -> Expr b mkTyApps Expr b f [Type] args = forall (t :: * -> *) b a. Foldable t => (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldl' (\ Expr b e Type a -> forall b. Expr b -> Expr b -> Expr b App Expr b e (forall b. Type -> Expr b mkTyArg Type a)) Expr b f [Type] args mkConApp2 :: DataCon -> [Type] -> [Var] -> Expr b mkConApp2 :: forall b. DataCon -> [Type] -> [Id] -> Expr b mkConApp2 DataCon con [Type] tys [Id] arg_ids = forall b. Id -> Expr b Var (DataCon -> Id dataConWorkId DataCon con) forall b. Expr b -> [Expr b] -> Expr b `mkApps` forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map forall b. Type -> Expr b Type [Type] tys forall b. Expr b -> [Expr b] -> Expr b `mkApps` forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map forall b. Id -> Expr b varToCoreExpr [Id] arg_ids mkTyArg :: Type -> Expr b mkTyArg :: forall b. Type -> Expr b mkTyArg Type ty | Just CoercionR co <- Type -> Maybe CoercionR isCoercionTy_maybe Type ty = forall b. CoercionR -> Expr b Coercion CoercionR co | Bool otherwise = forall b. Type -> Expr b Type Type ty -- | Create a machine integer literal expression of type @Int#@ from an @Integer@. -- If you want an expression of type @Int@ use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkIntExpr' mkIntLit :: Platform -> Integer -> Expr b mkIntLit :: forall b. Platform -> Integer -> Expr b mkIntLit Platform platform Integer n = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (Platform -> Integer -> Literal mkLitInt Platform platform Integer n) -- | Create a machine integer literal expression of type @Int#@ from an -- @Integer@, wrapping if necessary. -- If you want an expression of type @Int@ use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkIntExpr' mkIntLitWrap :: Platform -> Integer -> Expr b mkIntLitWrap :: forall b. Platform -> Integer -> Expr b mkIntLitWrap Platform platform Integer n = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (Platform -> Integer -> Literal mkLitIntWrap Platform platform Integer n) -- | Create a machine word literal expression of type @Word#@ from an @Integer@. -- If you want an expression of type @Word@ use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkWordExpr' mkWordLit :: Platform -> Integer -> Expr b mkWordLit :: forall b. Platform -> Integer -> Expr b mkWordLit Platform platform Integer w = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (Platform -> Integer -> Literal mkLitWord Platform platform Integer w) -- | Create a machine word literal expression of type @Word#@ from an -- @Integer@, wrapping if necessary. -- If you want an expression of type @Word@ use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkWordExpr' mkWordLitWrap :: Platform -> Integer -> Expr b mkWordLitWrap :: forall b. Platform -> Integer -> Expr b mkWordLitWrap Platform platform Integer w = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (Platform -> Integer -> Literal mkLitWordWrap Platform platform Integer w) mkWord8Lit :: Integer -> Expr b mkWord8Lit :: forall b. Integer -> Expr b mkWord8Lit Integer w = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (Integer -> Literal mkLitWord8 Integer w) mkWord64LitWord64 :: Word64 -> Expr b mkWord64LitWord64 :: forall b. Word64 -> Expr b mkWord64LitWord64 Word64 w = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (Integer -> Literal mkLitWord64 (forall a. Integral a => a -> Integer toInteger Word64 w)) mkInt64LitInt64 :: Int64 -> Expr b mkInt64LitInt64 :: forall b. Int64 -> Expr b mkInt64LitInt64 Int64 w = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (Integer -> Literal mkLitInt64 (forall a. Integral a => a -> Integer toInteger Int64 w)) -- | Create a machine character literal expression of type @Char#@. -- If you want an expression of type @Char@ use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkCharExpr' mkCharLit :: Char -> Expr b -- | Create a machine string literal expression of type @Addr#@. -- If you want an expression of type @String@ use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkStringExpr' mkStringLit :: String -> Expr b mkCharLit :: forall b. Char -> Expr b mkCharLit Char c = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (Char -> Literal mkLitChar Char c) mkStringLit :: forall b. String -> Expr b mkStringLit String s = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (String -> Literal mkLitString String s) -- | Create a machine single precision literal expression of type @Float#@ from a @Rational@. -- If you want an expression of type @Float@ use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkFloatExpr' mkFloatLit :: Rational -> Expr b -- | Create a machine single precision literal expression of type @Float#@ from a @Float@. -- If you want an expression of type @Float@ use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkFloatExpr' mkFloatLitFloat :: Float -> Expr b mkFloatLit :: forall b. Rational -> Expr b mkFloatLit Rational f = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (Rational -> Literal mkLitFloat Rational f) mkFloatLitFloat :: forall b. Float -> Expr b mkFloatLitFloat Float f = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (Rational -> Literal mkLitFloat (forall a. Real a => a -> Rational toRational Float f)) -- | Create a machine double precision literal expression of type @Double#@ from a @Rational@. -- If you want an expression of type @Double@ use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkDoubleExpr' mkDoubleLit :: Rational -> Expr b -- | Create a machine double precision literal expression of type @Double#@ from a @Double@. -- If you want an expression of type @Double@ use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkDoubleExpr' mkDoubleLitDouble :: Double -> Expr b mkDoubleLit :: forall b. Rational -> Expr b mkDoubleLit Rational d = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (Rational -> Literal mkLitDouble Rational d) mkDoubleLitDouble :: forall b. Double -> Expr b mkDoubleLitDouble Double d = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit (Rational -> Literal mkLitDouble (forall a. Real a => a -> Rational toRational Double d)) -- | Bind all supplied binding groups over an expression in a nested let expression. Assumes -- that the rhs satisfies the let/app invariant. Prefer to use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkCoreLets' if -- possible, which does guarantee the invariant mkLets :: [Bind b] -> Expr b -> Expr b -- | Bind all supplied binders over an expression in a nested lambda expression. Prefer to -- use 'GHC.Core.Make.mkCoreLams' if possible mkLams :: [b] -> Expr b -> Expr b mkLams :: forall b. [b] -> Expr b -> Expr b mkLams [b] binders Expr b body = forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr forall b. b -> Expr b -> Expr b Lam Expr b body [b] binders mkLets :: forall b. [Bind b] -> Expr b -> Expr b mkLets [Bind b] binds Expr b body = forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr forall b. Bind b -> Expr b -> Expr b mkLet Expr b body [Bind b] binds mkLet :: Bind b -> Expr b -> Expr b -- The desugarer sometimes generates an empty Rec group -- which Lint rejects, so we kill it off right away mkLet :: forall b. Bind b -> Expr b -> Expr b mkLet (Rec []) Expr b body = Expr b body mkLet Bind b bind Expr b body = forall b. Bind b -> Expr b -> Expr b Let Bind b bind Expr b body -- | @mkLetNonRec bndr rhs body@ wraps @body@ in a @let@ binding @bndr@. mkLetNonRec :: b -> Expr b -> Expr b -> Expr b mkLetNonRec :: forall b. b -> Expr b -> Expr b -> Expr b mkLetNonRec b b Expr b rhs Expr b body = forall b. Bind b -> Expr b -> Expr b Let (forall b. b -> Expr b -> Bind b NonRec b b Expr b rhs) Expr b body -- | @mkLetRec binds body@ wraps @body@ in a @let rec@ with the given set of -- @binds@ if binds is non-empty. mkLetRec :: [(b, Expr b)] -> Expr b -> Expr b mkLetRec :: forall b. [(b, Expr b)] -> Expr b -> Expr b mkLetRec [] Expr b body = Expr b body mkLetRec [(b, Expr b)] bs Expr b body = forall b. Bind b -> Expr b -> Expr b Let (forall b. [(b, Expr b)] -> Bind b Rec [(b, Expr b)] bs) Expr b body -- | Create a binding group where a type variable is bound to a type. -- Per Note [Core type and coercion invariant], -- this can only be used to bind something in a non-recursive @let@ expression mkTyBind :: TyVar -> Type -> CoreBind mkTyBind :: Id -> Type -> CoreBind mkTyBind Id tv Type ty = forall b. b -> Expr b -> Bind b NonRec Id tv (forall b. Type -> Expr b Type Type ty) -- | Create a binding group where a type variable is bound to a type. -- Per Note [Core type and coercion invariant], -- this can only be used to bind something in a non-recursive @let@ expression mkCoBind :: CoVar -> Coercion -> CoreBind mkCoBind :: Id -> CoercionR -> CoreBind mkCoBind Id cv CoercionR co = forall b. b -> Expr b -> Bind b NonRec Id cv (forall b. CoercionR -> Expr b Coercion CoercionR co) -- | Convert a binder into either a 'Var' or 'Type' 'Expr' appropriately varToCoreExpr :: CoreBndr -> Expr b varToCoreExpr :: forall b. Id -> Expr b varToCoreExpr Id v | Id -> Bool isTyVar Id v = forall b. Type -> Expr b Type (Id -> Type mkTyVarTy Id v) | Id -> Bool isCoVar Id v = forall b. CoercionR -> Expr b Coercion (Id -> CoercionR mkCoVarCo Id v) | Bool otherwise = ASSERT( isId v ) Var v varsToCoreExprs :: [CoreBndr] -> [Expr b] varsToCoreExprs :: forall b. [Id] -> [Expr b] varsToCoreExprs [Id] vs = forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map forall b. Id -> Expr b varToCoreExpr [Id] vs {- ************************************************************************ * * Getting a result type * * ************************************************************************ These are defined here to avoid a module loop between GHC.Core.Utils and GHC.Core.FVs -} applyTypeToArg :: Type -> CoreExpr -> Type -- ^ Determines the type resulting from applying an expression with given type -- to a given argument expression applyTypeToArg :: Type -> CoreExpr -> Type applyTypeToArg Type fun_ty CoreExpr arg = HasDebugCallStack => Type -> Type -> Type piResultTy Type fun_ty (CoreExpr -> Type exprToType CoreExpr arg) -- | If the expression is a 'Type', converts. Otherwise, -- panics. NB: This does /not/ convert 'Coercion' to 'CoercionTy'. exprToType :: CoreExpr -> Type exprToType :: CoreExpr -> Type exprToType (Type Type ty) = Type ty exprToType CoreExpr _bad = forall a. HasCallStack => String -> SDoc -> a pprPanic String "exprToType" SDoc empty -- | If the expression is a 'Coercion', converts. exprToCoercion_maybe :: CoreExpr -> Maybe Coercion exprToCoercion_maybe :: CoreExpr -> Maybe CoercionR exprToCoercion_maybe (Coercion CoercionR co) = forall a. a -> Maybe a Just CoercionR co exprToCoercion_maybe CoreExpr _ = forall a. Maybe a Nothing {- ************************************************************************ * * \subsection{Simple access functions} * * ************************************************************************ -} -- | Extract every variable by this group bindersOf :: Bind b -> [b] -- If you edit this function, you may need to update the GHC formalism -- See Note [GHC Formalism] in GHC.Core.Lint bindersOf :: forall b. Bind b -> [b] bindersOf (NonRec b binder Expr b _) = [b binder] bindersOf (Rec [(b, Expr b)] pairs) = [b binder | (b binder, Expr b _) <- [(b, Expr b)] pairs] -- | 'bindersOf' applied to a list of binding groups bindersOfBinds :: [Bind b] -> [b] bindersOfBinds :: forall b. [Bind b] -> [b] bindersOfBinds [Bind b] binds = forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] (++) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . forall b. Bind b -> [b] bindersOf) [] [Bind b] binds rhssOfBind :: Bind b -> [Expr b] rhssOfBind :: forall b. Bind b -> [Expr b] rhssOfBind (NonRec b _ Expr b rhs) = [Expr b rhs] rhssOfBind (Rec [(b, Expr b)] pairs) = [Expr b rhs | (b _,Expr b rhs) <- [(b, Expr b)] pairs] rhssOfAlts :: [Alt b] -> [Expr b] rhssOfAlts :: forall b. [Alt b] -> [Expr b] rhssOfAlts [Alt b] alts = [Expr b e | Alt AltCon _ [b] _ Expr b e <- [Alt b] alts] -- | Collapse all the bindings in the supplied groups into a single -- list of lhs\/rhs pairs suitable for binding in a 'Rec' binding group flattenBinds :: [Bind b] -> [(b, Expr b)] flattenBinds :: forall b. [Bind b] -> [(b, Expr b)] flattenBinds (NonRec b b Expr b r : [Bind b] binds) = (b b,Expr b r) forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : forall b. [Bind b] -> [(b, Expr b)] flattenBinds [Bind b] binds flattenBinds (Rec [(b, Expr b)] prs1 : [Bind b] binds) = [(b, Expr b)] prs1 forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ forall b. [Bind b] -> [(b, Expr b)] flattenBinds [Bind b] binds flattenBinds [] = [] -- | We often want to strip off leading lambdas before getting down to -- business. Variants are 'collectTyBinders', 'collectValBinders', -- and 'collectTyAndValBinders' collectBinders :: Expr b -> ([b], Expr b) collectTyBinders :: CoreExpr -> ([TyVar], CoreExpr) collectValBinders :: CoreExpr -> ([Id], CoreExpr) collectTyAndValBinders :: CoreExpr -> ([TyVar], [Id], CoreExpr) -- | Strip off exactly N leading lambdas (type or value). Good for use with -- join points. collectNBinders :: Int -> Expr b -> ([b], Expr b) collectBinders :: forall b. Expr b -> ([b], Expr b) collectBinders Expr b expr = forall {a}. [a] -> Expr a -> ([a], Expr a) go [] Expr b expr where go :: [a] -> Expr a -> ([a], Expr a) go [a] bs (Lam a b Expr a e) = [a] -> Expr a -> ([a], Expr a) go (a bforall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] bs) Expr a e go [a] bs Expr a e = (forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [a] bs, Expr a e) collectTyBinders :: CoreExpr -> ([Id], CoreExpr) collectTyBinders CoreExpr expr = [Id] -> CoreExpr -> ([Id], CoreExpr) go [] CoreExpr expr where go :: [Id] -> CoreExpr -> ([Id], CoreExpr) go [Id] tvs (Lam Id b CoreExpr e) | Id -> Bool isTyVar Id b = [Id] -> CoreExpr -> ([Id], CoreExpr) go (Id bforall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[Id] tvs) CoreExpr e go [Id] tvs CoreExpr e = (forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [Id] tvs, CoreExpr e) collectValBinders :: CoreExpr -> ([Id], CoreExpr) collectValBinders CoreExpr expr = [Id] -> CoreExpr -> ([Id], CoreExpr) go [] CoreExpr expr where go :: [Id] -> CoreExpr -> ([Id], CoreExpr) go [Id] ids (Lam Id b CoreExpr e) | Id -> Bool isId Id b = [Id] -> CoreExpr -> ([Id], CoreExpr) go (Id bforall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[Id] ids) CoreExpr e go [Id] ids CoreExpr body = (forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [Id] ids, CoreExpr body) collectTyAndValBinders :: CoreExpr -> ([Id], [Id], CoreExpr) collectTyAndValBinders CoreExpr expr = ([Id] tvs, [Id] ids, CoreExpr body) where ([Id] tvs, CoreExpr body1) = CoreExpr -> ([Id], CoreExpr) collectTyBinders CoreExpr expr ([Id] ids, CoreExpr body) = CoreExpr -> ([Id], CoreExpr) collectValBinders CoreExpr body1 collectNBinders :: forall b. ConTag -> Expr b -> ([b], Expr b) collectNBinders ConTag orig_n Expr b orig_expr = ConTag -> [b] -> Expr b -> ([b], Expr b) go ConTag orig_n [] Expr b orig_expr where go :: ConTag -> [b] -> Expr b -> ([b], Expr b) go ConTag 0 [b] bs Expr b expr = (forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [b] bs, Expr b expr) go ConTag n [b] bs (Lam b b Expr b e) = ConTag -> [b] -> Expr b -> ([b], Expr b) go (ConTag nforall a. Num a => a -> a -> a -ConTag 1) (b bforall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[b] bs) Expr b e go ConTag _ [b] _ Expr b _ = forall a. HasCallStack => String -> SDoc -> a pprPanic String "collectNBinders" forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ ConTag -> SDoc int ConTag orig_n -- | Takes a nested application expression and returns the function -- being applied and the arguments to which it is applied collectArgs :: Expr b -> (Expr b, [Arg b]) collectArgs :: forall b. Expr b -> (Expr b, [Expr b]) collectArgs Expr b expr = forall {b}. Expr b -> [Expr b] -> (Expr b, [Expr b]) go Expr b expr [] where go :: Expr b -> [Expr b] -> (Expr b, [Expr b]) go (App Expr b f Expr b a) [Expr b] as = Expr b -> [Expr b] -> (Expr b, [Expr b]) go Expr b f (Expr b aforall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[Expr b] as) go Expr b e [Expr b] as = (Expr b e, [Expr b] as) -- | Attempt to remove the last N arguments of a function call. -- Strip off any ticks or coercions encountered along the way and any -- at the end. stripNArgs :: Word -> Expr a -> Maybe (Expr a) stripNArgs :: forall a. Word -> Expr a -> Maybe (Expr a) stripNArgs !Word n (Tick CoreTickish _ Expr a e) = forall a. Word -> Expr a -> Maybe (Expr a) stripNArgs Word n Expr a e stripNArgs Word n (Cast Expr a f CoercionR _) = forall a. Word -> Expr a -> Maybe (Expr a) stripNArgs Word n Expr a f stripNArgs Word 0 Expr a e = forall a. a -> Maybe a Just Expr a e stripNArgs Word n (App Expr a f Expr a _) = forall a. Word -> Expr a -> Maybe (Expr a) stripNArgs (Word n forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a - Word 1) Expr a f stripNArgs Word _ Expr a _ = forall a. Maybe a Nothing -- | Like @collectArgs@, but also collects looks through floatable -- ticks if it means that we can find more arguments. collectArgsTicks :: (CoreTickish -> Bool) -> Expr b -> (Expr b, [Arg b], [CoreTickish]) collectArgsTicks :: forall b. (CoreTickish -> Bool) -> Expr b -> (Expr b, [Expr b], [CoreTickish]) collectArgsTicks CoreTickish -> Bool skipTick Expr b expr = Expr b -> [Expr b] -> [CoreTickish] -> (Expr b, [Expr b], [CoreTickish]) go Expr b expr [] [] where go :: Expr b -> [Expr b] -> [CoreTickish] -> (Expr b, [Expr b], [CoreTickish]) go (App Expr b f Expr b a) [Expr b] as [CoreTickish] ts = Expr b -> [Expr b] -> [CoreTickish] -> (Expr b, [Expr b], [CoreTickish]) go Expr b f (Expr b aforall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[Expr b] as) [CoreTickish] ts go (Tick CoreTickish t Expr b e) [Expr b] as [CoreTickish] ts | CoreTickish -> Bool skipTick CoreTickish t = Expr b -> [Expr b] -> [CoreTickish] -> (Expr b, [Expr b], [CoreTickish]) go Expr b e [Expr b] as (CoreTickish tforall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[CoreTickish] ts) go Expr b e [Expr b] as [CoreTickish] ts = (Expr b e, [Expr b] as, forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [CoreTickish] ts) {- ************************************************************************ * * \subsection{Predicates} * * ************************************************************************ At one time we optionally carried type arguments through to runtime. @isRuntimeVar v@ returns if (Lam v _) really becomes a lambda at runtime, i.e. if type applications are actual lambdas because types are kept around at runtime. Similarly isRuntimeArg. -} -- | Will this variable exist at runtime? isRuntimeVar :: Var -> Bool isRuntimeVar :: Id -> Bool isRuntimeVar = Id -> Bool isId -- | Will this argument expression exist at runtime? isRuntimeArg :: CoreExpr -> Bool isRuntimeArg :: CoreExpr -> Bool isRuntimeArg = forall b. Expr b -> Bool isValArg -- | Returns @True@ for value arguments, false for type args -- NB: coercions are value arguments (zero width, to be sure, -- like State#, but still value args). isValArg :: Expr b -> Bool isValArg :: forall b. Expr b -> Bool isValArg Expr b e = Bool -> Bool not (forall b. Expr b -> Bool isTypeArg Expr b e) -- | Returns @True@ iff the expression is a 'Type' or 'Coercion' -- expression at its top level isTyCoArg :: Expr b -> Bool isTyCoArg :: forall b. Expr b -> Bool isTyCoArg (Type {}) = Bool True isTyCoArg (Coercion {}) = Bool True isTyCoArg Expr b _ = Bool False -- | Returns @True@ iff the expression is a 'Coercion' -- expression at its top level isCoArg :: Expr b -> Bool isCoArg :: forall b. Expr b -> Bool isCoArg (Coercion {}) = Bool True isCoArg Expr b _ = Bool False -- | Returns @True@ iff the expression is a 'Type' expression at its -- top level. Note this does NOT include 'Coercion's. isTypeArg :: Expr b -> Bool isTypeArg :: forall b. Expr b -> Bool isTypeArg (Type {}) = Bool True isTypeArg Expr b _ = Bool False -- | The number of binders that bind values rather than types valBndrCount :: [CoreBndr] -> Int valBndrCount :: [Id] -> ConTag valBndrCount = forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ConTag count Id -> Bool isId -- | The number of argument expressions that are values rather than types at their top level valArgCount :: [Arg b] -> Int valArgCount :: forall b. [Arg b] -> ConTag valArgCount = forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ConTag count forall b. Expr b -> Bool isValArg {- ************************************************************************ * * \subsection{Annotated core} * * ************************************************************************ -} -- | Annotated core: allows annotation at every node in the tree type AnnExpr bndr annot = (annot, AnnExpr' bndr annot) -- | A clone of the 'Expr' type but allowing annotation at every tree node data AnnExpr' bndr annot = AnnVar Id | AnnLit Literal | AnnLam bndr (AnnExpr bndr annot) | AnnApp (AnnExpr bndr annot) (AnnExpr bndr annot) | AnnCase (AnnExpr bndr annot) bndr Type [AnnAlt bndr annot] | AnnLet (AnnBind bndr annot) (AnnExpr bndr annot) | AnnCast (AnnExpr bndr annot) (annot, Coercion) -- Put an annotation on the (root of) the coercion | AnnTick CoreTickish (AnnExpr bndr annot) | AnnType Type | AnnCoercion Coercion -- | A clone of the 'Alt' type but allowing annotation at every tree node data AnnAlt bndr annot = AnnAlt AltCon [bndr] (AnnExpr bndr annot) -- | A clone of the 'Bind' type but allowing annotation at every tree node data AnnBind bndr annot = AnnNonRec bndr (AnnExpr bndr annot) | AnnRec [(bndr, AnnExpr bndr annot)] -- | Takes a nested application expression and returns the function -- being applied and the arguments to which it is applied collectAnnArgs :: AnnExpr b a -> (AnnExpr b a, [AnnExpr b a]) collectAnnArgs :: forall b a. AnnExpr b a -> (AnnExpr b a, [AnnExpr b a]) collectAnnArgs AnnExpr b a expr = forall {bndr} {annot}. AnnExpr bndr annot -> [AnnExpr bndr annot] -> (AnnExpr bndr annot, [AnnExpr bndr annot]) go AnnExpr b a expr [] where go :: AnnExpr bndr annot -> [AnnExpr bndr annot] -> (AnnExpr bndr annot, [AnnExpr bndr annot]) go (annot _, AnnApp AnnExpr bndr annot f AnnExpr bndr annot a) [AnnExpr bndr annot] as = AnnExpr bndr annot -> [AnnExpr bndr annot] -> (AnnExpr bndr annot, [AnnExpr bndr annot]) go AnnExpr bndr annot f (AnnExpr bndr annot aforall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[AnnExpr bndr annot] as) go AnnExpr bndr annot e [AnnExpr bndr annot] as = (AnnExpr bndr annot e, [AnnExpr bndr annot] as) collectAnnArgsTicks :: (CoreTickish -> Bool) -> AnnExpr b a -> (AnnExpr b a, [AnnExpr b a], [CoreTickish]) collectAnnArgsTicks :: forall b a. (CoreTickish -> Bool) -> AnnExpr b a -> (AnnExpr b a, [AnnExpr b a], [CoreTickish]) collectAnnArgsTicks CoreTickish -> Bool tickishOk AnnExpr b a expr = AnnExpr b a -> [AnnExpr b a] -> [CoreTickish] -> (AnnExpr b a, [AnnExpr b a], [CoreTickish]) go AnnExpr b a expr [] [] where go :: AnnExpr b a -> [AnnExpr b a] -> [CoreTickish] -> (AnnExpr b a, [AnnExpr b a], [CoreTickish]) go (a _, AnnApp AnnExpr b a f AnnExpr b a a) [AnnExpr b a] as [CoreTickish] ts = AnnExpr b a -> [AnnExpr b a] -> [CoreTickish] -> (AnnExpr b a, [AnnExpr b a], [CoreTickish]) go AnnExpr b a f (AnnExpr b a aforall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[AnnExpr b a] as) [CoreTickish] ts go (a _, AnnTick CoreTickish t AnnExpr b a e) [AnnExpr b a] as [CoreTickish] ts | CoreTickish -> Bool tickishOk CoreTickish t = AnnExpr b a -> [AnnExpr b a] -> [CoreTickish] -> (AnnExpr b a, [AnnExpr b a], [CoreTickish]) go AnnExpr b a e [AnnExpr b a] as (CoreTickish tforall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[CoreTickish] ts) go AnnExpr b a e [AnnExpr b a] as [CoreTickish] ts = (AnnExpr b a e, [AnnExpr b a] as, forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [CoreTickish] ts) deAnnotate :: AnnExpr bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate :: forall bndr annot. AnnExpr bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate (annot _, AnnExpr' bndr annot e) = forall bndr annot. AnnExpr' bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate' AnnExpr' bndr annot e deAnnotate' :: AnnExpr' bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate' :: forall bndr annot. AnnExpr' bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate' (AnnType Type t) = forall b. Type -> Expr b Type Type t deAnnotate' (AnnCoercion CoercionR co) = forall b. CoercionR -> Expr b Coercion CoercionR co deAnnotate' (AnnVar Id v) = forall b. Id -> Expr b Var Id v deAnnotate' (AnnLit Literal lit) = forall b. Literal -> Expr b Lit Literal lit deAnnotate' (AnnLam bndr binder AnnExpr bndr annot body) = forall b. b -> Expr b -> Expr b Lam bndr binder (forall bndr annot. AnnExpr bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate AnnExpr bndr annot body) deAnnotate' (AnnApp AnnExpr bndr annot fun AnnExpr bndr annot arg) = forall b. Expr b -> Expr b -> Expr b App (forall bndr annot. AnnExpr bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate AnnExpr bndr annot fun) (forall bndr annot. AnnExpr bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate AnnExpr bndr annot arg) deAnnotate' (AnnCast AnnExpr bndr annot e (annot _,CoercionR co)) = forall b. Expr b -> CoercionR -> Expr b Cast (forall bndr annot. AnnExpr bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate AnnExpr bndr annot e) CoercionR co deAnnotate' (AnnTick CoreTickish tick AnnExpr bndr annot body) = forall b. CoreTickish -> Expr b -> Expr b Tick CoreTickish tick (forall bndr annot. AnnExpr bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate AnnExpr bndr annot body) deAnnotate' (AnnLet AnnBind bndr annot bind AnnExpr bndr annot body) = forall b. Bind b -> Expr b -> Expr b Let (forall b annot. AnnBind b annot -> Bind b deAnnBind AnnBind bndr annot bind) (forall bndr annot. AnnExpr bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate AnnExpr bndr annot body) deAnnotate' (AnnCase AnnExpr bndr annot scrut bndr v Type t [AnnAlt bndr annot] alts) = forall b. Expr b -> b -> Type -> [Alt b] -> Expr b Case (forall bndr annot. AnnExpr bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate AnnExpr bndr annot scrut) bndr v Type t (forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map forall bndr annot. AnnAlt bndr annot -> Alt bndr deAnnAlt [AnnAlt bndr annot] alts) deAnnAlt :: AnnAlt bndr annot -> Alt bndr deAnnAlt :: forall bndr annot. AnnAlt bndr annot -> Alt bndr deAnnAlt (AnnAlt AltCon con [bndr] args AnnExpr bndr annot rhs) = forall b. AltCon -> [b] -> Expr b -> Alt b Alt AltCon con [bndr] args (forall bndr annot. AnnExpr bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate AnnExpr bndr annot rhs) deAnnBind :: AnnBind b annot -> Bind b deAnnBind :: forall b annot. AnnBind b annot -> Bind b deAnnBind (AnnNonRec b var AnnExpr b annot rhs) = forall b. b -> Expr b -> Bind b NonRec b var (forall bndr annot. AnnExpr bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate AnnExpr b annot rhs) deAnnBind (AnnRec [(b, AnnExpr b annot)] pairs) = forall b. [(b, Expr b)] -> Bind b Rec [(b v,forall bndr annot. AnnExpr bndr annot -> Expr bndr deAnnotate AnnExpr b annot rhs) | (b v,AnnExpr b annot rhs) <- [(b, AnnExpr b annot)] pairs] -- | As 'collectBinders' but for 'AnnExpr' rather than 'Expr' collectAnnBndrs :: AnnExpr bndr annot -> ([bndr], AnnExpr bndr annot) collectAnnBndrs :: forall bndr annot. AnnExpr bndr annot -> ([bndr], AnnExpr bndr annot) collectAnnBndrs AnnExpr bndr annot e = forall {a} {annot}. [a] -> AnnExpr a annot -> ([a], AnnExpr a annot) collect [] AnnExpr bndr annot e where collect :: [a] -> AnnExpr a annot -> ([a], AnnExpr a annot) collect [a] bs (annot _, AnnLam a b AnnExpr a annot body) = [a] -> AnnExpr a annot -> ([a], AnnExpr a annot) collect (a bforall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] bs) AnnExpr a annot body collect [a] bs AnnExpr a annot body = (forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [a] bs, AnnExpr a annot body) -- | As 'collectNBinders' but for 'AnnExpr' rather than 'Expr' collectNAnnBndrs :: Int -> AnnExpr bndr annot -> ([bndr], AnnExpr bndr annot) collectNAnnBndrs :: forall bndr annot. ConTag -> AnnExpr bndr annot -> ([bndr], AnnExpr bndr annot) collectNAnnBndrs ConTag orig_n AnnExpr bndr annot e = ConTag -> [bndr] -> AnnExpr bndr annot -> ([bndr], AnnExpr bndr annot) collect ConTag orig_n [] AnnExpr bndr annot e where collect :: ConTag -> [bndr] -> AnnExpr bndr annot -> ([bndr], AnnExpr bndr annot) collect ConTag 0 [bndr] bs AnnExpr bndr annot body = (forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [bndr] bs, AnnExpr bndr annot body) collect ConTag n [bndr] bs (annot _, AnnLam bndr b AnnExpr bndr annot body) = ConTag -> [bndr] -> AnnExpr bndr annot -> ([bndr], AnnExpr bndr annot) collect (ConTag nforall a. Num a => a -> a -> a -ConTag 1) (bndr bforall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[bndr] bs) AnnExpr bndr annot body collect ConTag _ [bndr] _ AnnExpr bndr annot _ = forall a. HasCallStack => String -> SDoc -> a pprPanic String "collectNBinders" forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ ConTag -> SDoc int ConTag orig_n