{-# LANGUAGE RecursiveDo #-} module GHC.Tc.Solver( InferMode(..), simplifyInfer, findInferredDiff, growThetaTyVars, simplifyAmbiguityCheck, simplifyDefault, simplifyTop, simplifyTopImplic, simplifyInteractive, solveEqualities, pushLevelAndSolveEqualities, pushLevelAndSolveEqualitiesX, reportUnsolvedEqualities, simplifyWantedsTcM, tcCheckGivens, tcCheckWanteds, tcNormalise, captureTopConstraints, simplifyTopWanteds, promoteTyVarSet, simplifyAndEmitFlatConstraints, -- For Rules we need these solveWanteds, approximateWC ) where import GHC.Prelude import GHC.Data.Bag import GHC.Core.Class import GHC.Driver.Session import GHC.Tc.Utils.Instantiate import GHC.Data.List.SetOps import GHC.Types.Name import GHC.Types.Id( idType ) import GHC.Utils.Outputable import GHC.Builtin.Utils import GHC.Builtin.Names import GHC.Tc.Errors import GHC.Tc.Errors.Types import GHC.Tc.Types.Evidence import GHC.Tc.Solver.Interact import GHC.Tc.Solver.Canonical ( makeSuperClasses, solveCallStack ) import GHC.Tc.Solver.Rewrite ( rewriteType ) import GHC.Tc.Utils.Unify ( buildTvImplication ) import GHC.Tc.Utils.TcMType as TcM import GHC.Tc.Utils.Monad as TcM import GHC.Tc.Solver.InertSet import GHC.Tc.Solver.Monad as TcS import GHC.Tc.Types.Constraint import GHC.Tc.Instance.FunDeps import GHC.Core.Predicate import GHC.Tc.Types.Origin import GHC.Tc.Utils.TcType import GHC.Core.Type import GHC.Core.Ppr import GHC.Core.TyCon ( TyConBinder, isTypeFamilyTyCon ) import GHC.Builtin.Types ( liftedRepTy, liftedDataConTy ) import GHC.Core.Unify ( tcMatchTyKi ) import GHC.Utils.Misc import GHC.Utils.Panic import GHC.Types.Var import GHC.Types.Var.Set import GHC.Types.Basic ( IntWithInf, intGtLimit , DefaultingStrategy(..), NonStandardDefaultingStrategy(..) ) import GHC.Types.Error import qualified GHC.LanguageExtensions as LangExt import Control.Monad import Data.Foldable ( toList ) import Data.List ( partition ) import Data.List.NonEmpty ( NonEmpty(..) ) import GHC.Data.Maybe ( mapMaybe, isJust ) {- ********************************************************************************* * * * External interface * * * ********************************************************************************* -} captureTopConstraints :: TcM a -> TcM (a, WantedConstraints) -- (captureTopConstraints m) runs m, and returns the type constraints it -- generates plus the constraints produced by static forms inside. -- If it fails with an exception, it reports any insolubles -- (out of scope variables) before doing so -- -- captureTopConstraints is used exclusively by GHC.Tc.Module at the top -- level of a module. -- -- Importantly, if captureTopConstraints propagates an exception, it -- reports any insoluble constraints first, lest they be lost -- altogether. This is important, because solveEqualities (maybe -- other things too) throws an exception without adding any error -- messages; it just puts the unsolved constraints back into the -- monad. See GHC.Tc.Utils.Monad Note [Constraints and errors] -- #16376 is an example of what goes wrong if you don't do this. -- -- NB: the caller should bring any environments into scope before -- calling this, so that the reportUnsolved has access to the most -- complete GlobalRdrEnv captureTopConstraints :: forall a. TcM a -> TcM (a, WantedConstraints) captureTopConstraints TcM a thing_inside = do { TcRef WantedConstraints static_wc_var <- WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv (TcRef WantedConstraints) forall a gbl lcl. a -> TcRnIf gbl lcl (TcRef a) TcM.newTcRef WantedConstraints emptyWC ; ; (Maybe a mb_res, WantedConstraints lie) <- (TcGblEnv -> TcGblEnv) -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv (Maybe a, WantedConstraints) -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv (Maybe a, WantedConstraints) forall gbl lcl a. (gbl -> gbl) -> TcRnIf gbl lcl a -> TcRnIf gbl lcl a TcM.updGblEnv (\TcGblEnv env -> TcGblEnv env { tcg_static_wc = static_wc_var } ) (TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv (Maybe a, WantedConstraints) -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv (Maybe a, WantedConstraints)) -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv (Maybe a, WantedConstraints) -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv (Maybe a, WantedConstraints) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ TcM a -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv (Maybe a, WantedConstraints) forall a. TcM a -> TcM (Maybe a, WantedConstraints) TcM.tryCaptureConstraints TcM a thing_inside ; WantedConstraints stWC <- TcRef WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints forall a gbl lcl. TcRef a -> TcRnIf gbl lcl a TcM.readTcRef TcRef WantedConstraints static_wc_var -- See GHC.Tc.Utils.Monad Note [Constraints and errors] -- If the thing_inside threw an exception, but generated some insoluble -- constraints, report the latter before propagating the exception -- Otherwise they will be lost altogether ; case Maybe a mb_res of Just a res -> (a, WantedConstraints) -> TcM (a, WantedConstraints) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (a res, WantedConstraints lie WantedConstraints -> WantedConstraints -> WantedConstraints `andWC` WantedConstraints stWC) Maybe a Nothing -> do { Bag EvBind _ <- WantedConstraints -> TcM (Bag EvBind) simplifyTop WantedConstraints lie; TcM (a, WantedConstraints) forall env a. IOEnv env a failM } } -- This call to simplifyTop is the reason -- this function is here instead of GHC.Tc.Utils.Monad -- We call simplifyTop so that it does defaulting -- (esp of runtime-reps) before reporting errors simplifyTopImplic :: Bag Implication -> TcM () simplifyTopImplic :: Bag Implication -> TcM () simplifyTopImplic Bag Implication implics = do { Bag EvBind empty_binds <- WantedConstraints -> TcM (Bag EvBind) simplifyTop (Bag Implication -> WantedConstraints mkImplicWC Bag Implication implics) -- Since all the inputs are implications the returned bindings will be empty ; Bool -> SDoc -> TcM () forall (m :: * -> *). (HasCallStack, Applicative m) => Bool -> SDoc -> m () massertPpr (Bag EvBind -> Bool forall a. Bag a -> Bool isEmptyBag Bag EvBind empty_binds) (Bag EvBind -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Bag EvBind empty_binds) ; () -> TcM () forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return () } simplifyTop :: WantedConstraints -> TcM (Bag EvBind) -- Simplify top-level constraints -- Usually these will be implications, -- but when there is nothing to quantify we don't wrap -- in a degenerate implication, so we do that here instead simplifyTop :: WantedConstraints -> TcM (Bag EvBind) simplifyTop WantedConstraints wanteds = do { String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "simplifyTop {" (SDoc -> TcM ()) -> SDoc -> TcM () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "wanted = " SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints wanteds ; ((WantedConstraints final_wc, Cts unsafe_ol), EvBindMap binds1) <- TcS (WantedConstraints, Cts) -> TcM ((WantedConstraints, Cts), EvBindMap) forall a. TcS a -> TcM (a, EvBindMap) runTcS (TcS (WantedConstraints, Cts) -> TcM ((WantedConstraints, Cts), EvBindMap)) -> TcS (WantedConstraints, Cts) -> TcM ((WantedConstraints, Cts), EvBindMap) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do { WantedConstraints final_wc <- WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints simplifyTopWanteds WantedConstraints wanteds ; Cts unsafe_ol <- TcS Cts getSafeOverlapFailures ; (WantedConstraints, Cts) -> TcS (WantedConstraints, Cts) forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (WantedConstraints final_wc, Cts unsafe_ol) } ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "End simplifyTop }" SDoc forall doc. IsOutput doc => doc empty ; Bag EvBind binds2 <- WantedConstraints -> TcM (Bag EvBind) reportUnsolved WantedConstraints final_wc ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "reportUnsolved (unsafe overlapping) {" SDoc forall doc. IsOutput doc => doc empty ; Bool -> TcM () -> TcM () forall (f :: * -> *). Applicative f => Bool -> f () -> f () unless (Cts -> Bool isEmptyCts Cts unsafe_ol) (TcM () -> TcM ()) -> TcM () -> TcM () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do { -- grab current error messages and clear, warnAllUnsolved will -- update error messages which we'll grab and then restore saved -- messages. ; TcRef (Messages TcRnMessage) errs_var <- TcRn (TcRef (Messages TcRnMessage)) getErrsVar ; Messages TcRnMessage saved_msg <- TcRef (Messages TcRnMessage) -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv (Messages TcRnMessage) forall a gbl lcl. TcRef a -> TcRnIf gbl lcl a TcM.readTcRef TcRef (Messages TcRnMessage) errs_var ; TcRef (Messages TcRnMessage) -> Messages TcRnMessage -> TcM () forall a gbl lcl. TcRef a -> a -> TcRnIf gbl lcl () TcM.writeTcRef TcRef (Messages TcRnMessage) errs_var Messages TcRnMessage forall e. Messages e emptyMessages ; WantedConstraints -> TcM () warnAllUnsolved (WantedConstraints -> TcM ()) -> WantedConstraints -> TcM () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ WantedConstraints emptyWC { wc_simple = unsafe_ol } ; Bag (MsgEnvelope TcRnMessage) whyUnsafe <- Messages TcRnMessage -> Bag (MsgEnvelope TcRnMessage) forall e. Diagnostic e => Messages e -> Bag (MsgEnvelope e) getWarningMessages (Messages TcRnMessage -> Bag (MsgEnvelope TcRnMessage)) -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv (Messages TcRnMessage) -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) (Bag (MsgEnvelope TcRnMessage)) forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b <$> TcRef (Messages TcRnMessage) -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv (Messages TcRnMessage) forall a gbl lcl. TcRef a -> TcRnIf gbl lcl a TcM.readTcRef TcRef (Messages TcRnMessage) errs_var ; TcRef (Messages TcRnMessage) -> Messages TcRnMessage -> TcM () forall a gbl lcl. TcRef a -> a -> TcRnIf gbl lcl () TcM.writeTcRef TcRef (Messages TcRnMessage) errs_var Messages TcRnMessage saved_msg ; Messages TcRnMessage -> TcM () recordUnsafeInfer (Bag (MsgEnvelope TcRnMessage) -> Messages TcRnMessage forall e. Bag (MsgEnvelope e) -> Messages e mkMessages Bag (MsgEnvelope TcRnMessage) whyUnsafe) } ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "reportUnsolved (unsafe overlapping) }" SDoc forall doc. IsOutput doc => doc empty ; Bag EvBind -> TcM (Bag EvBind) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (EvBindMap -> Bag EvBind evBindMapBinds EvBindMap binds1 Bag EvBind -> Bag EvBind -> Bag EvBind forall a. Bag a -> Bag a -> Bag a `unionBags` Bag EvBind binds2) } pushLevelAndSolveEqualities :: SkolemInfoAnon -> [TyConBinder] -> TcM a -> TcM a -- Push level, and solve all resulting equalities -- If there are any unsolved equalities, report them -- and fail (in the monad) -- -- Panics if we solve any non-equality constraints. (In runTCSEqualities -- we use an error thunk for the evidence bindings.) pushLevelAndSolveEqualities :: forall a. SkolemInfoAnon -> [TyConBinder] -> TcM a -> TcM a pushLevelAndSolveEqualities SkolemInfoAnon skol_info_anon [TyConBinder] tcbs TcM a thing_inside = do { (TcLevel tclvl, WantedConstraints wanted, a res) <- String -> TcM a -> TcM (TcLevel, WantedConstraints, a) forall a. String -> TcM a -> TcM (TcLevel, WantedConstraints, a) pushLevelAndSolveEqualitiesX String "pushLevelAndSolveEqualities" TcM a thing_inside ; SkolemInfoAnon -> [TcTyVar] -> TcLevel -> WantedConstraints -> TcM () report_unsolved_equalities SkolemInfoAnon skol_info_anon ([TyConBinder] -> [TcTyVar] forall tv argf. [VarBndr tv argf] -> [tv] binderVars [TyConBinder] tcbs) TcLevel tclvl WantedConstraints wanted ; a -> TcM a forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return a res } pushLevelAndSolveEqualitiesX :: String -> TcM a -> TcM (TcLevel, WantedConstraints, a) -- Push the level, gather equality constraints, and then solve them. -- Returns any remaining unsolved equalities. -- Does not report errors. -- -- Panics if we solve any non-equality constraints. (In runTCSEqualities -- we use an error thunk for the evidence bindings.) pushLevelAndSolveEqualitiesX :: forall a. String -> TcM a -> TcM (TcLevel, WantedConstraints, a) pushLevelAndSolveEqualitiesX String callsite TcM a thing_inside = do { String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "pushLevelAndSolveEqualitiesX {" (String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "Called from" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String callsite) ; (TcLevel tclvl, (WantedConstraints wanted, a res)) <- TcM (WantedConstraints, a) -> TcM (TcLevel, (WantedConstraints, a)) forall a. TcM a -> TcM (TcLevel, a) pushTcLevelM (TcM (WantedConstraints, a) -> TcM (TcLevel, (WantedConstraints, a))) -> TcM (WantedConstraints, a) -> TcM (TcLevel, (WantedConstraints, a)) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do { (a res, WantedConstraints wanted) <- TcM a -> TcM (a, WantedConstraints) forall a. TcM a -> TcM (a, WantedConstraints) captureConstraints TcM a thing_inside ; WantedConstraints wanted <- TcS WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints forall a. TcS a -> TcM a runTcSEqualities (WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints simplifyTopWanteds WantedConstraints wanted) ; (WantedConstraints, a) -> TcM (WantedConstraints, a) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (WantedConstraints wanted,a res) } ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "pushLevelAndSolveEqualities }" ([SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "Residual:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints wanted , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "Level:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> TcLevel -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr TcLevel tclvl ]) ; (TcLevel, WantedConstraints, a) -> TcM (TcLevel, WantedConstraints, a) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (TcLevel tclvl, WantedConstraints wanted, a res) } -- | Type-check a thing that emits only equality constraints, solving any -- constraints we can and re-emitting constraints that we can't. -- Use this variant only when we'll get another crack at it later -- See Note [Failure in local type signatures] -- -- Panics if we solve any non-equality constraints. (In runTCSEqualities -- we use an error thunk for the evidence bindings.) solveEqualities :: String -> TcM a -> TcM a solveEqualities :: forall a. String -> TcM a -> TcM a solveEqualities String callsite TcM a thing_inside = do { String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "solveEqualities {" (String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "Called from" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String callsite) ; (a res, WantedConstraints wanted) <- TcM a -> TcM (a, WantedConstraints) forall a. TcM a -> TcM (a, WantedConstraints) captureConstraints TcM a thing_inside ; WantedConstraints -> TcM () simplifyAndEmitFlatConstraints WantedConstraints wanted -- simplifyAndEmitFlatConstraints fails outright unless -- the only unsolved constraints are soluble-looking -- equalities that can float out ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "solveEqualities }" SDoc forall doc. IsOutput doc => doc empty ; a -> TcM a forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return a res } simplifyAndEmitFlatConstraints :: WantedConstraints -> TcM () -- See Note [Failure in local type signatures] simplifyAndEmitFlatConstraints :: WantedConstraints -> TcM () simplifyAndEmitFlatConstraints WantedConstraints wanted = do { -- Solve and zonk to establish the -- preconditions for floatKindEqualities WantedConstraints wanted <- TcS WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints forall a. TcS a -> TcM a runTcSEqualities (WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints solveWanteds WantedConstraints wanted) ; WantedConstraints wanted <- WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints TcM.zonkWC WantedConstraints wanted ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "emitFlatConstraints {" (WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints wanted) ; case WantedConstraints -> Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) floatKindEqualities WantedConstraints wanted of Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) Nothing -> do { String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "emitFlatConstraints } failing" (WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints wanted) -- Emit the bad constraints, wrapped in an implication -- See Note [Wrapping failing kind equalities] ; TcLevel tclvl <- TcM TcLevel TcM.getTcLevel ; Implication implic <- SkolemInfoAnon -> [TcTyVar] -> TcLevel -> WantedConstraints -> TcM Implication buildTvImplication SkolemInfoAnon HasCallStack => SkolemInfoAnon unkSkolAnon [] (TcLevel -> TcLevel pushTcLevel TcLevel tclvl) WantedConstraints wanted -- ^^^^^^ | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ -- it's OK to use unkSkol | we must increase the TcLevel, -- because we don't bind | as explained in -- any skolem variables here | Note [Wrapping failing kind equalities] ; Implication -> TcM () emitImplication Implication implic ; TcM () forall env a. IOEnv env a failM } Just (Cts simples, Bag DelayedError errs) -> do { Bool _ <- VarSet -> TcM Bool promoteTyVarSet (Cts -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfCts Cts simples) ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "emitFlatConstraints }" (SDoc -> TcM ()) -> SDoc -> TcM () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "simples:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Cts -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Cts simples , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "errs: " SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Bag DelayedError -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Bag DelayedError errs ] -- Holes and other delayed errors don't need promotion ; Bag DelayedError -> TcM () emitDelayedErrors Bag DelayedError errs ; Cts -> TcM () emitSimples Cts simples } } floatKindEqualities :: WantedConstraints -> Maybe (Bag Ct, Bag DelayedError) -- Float out all the constraints from the WantedConstraints, -- Return Nothing if any constraints can't be floated (captured -- by skolems), or if there is an insoluble constraint, or -- IC_Telescope telescope error -- Precondition 1: we have tried to solve the 'wanteds', both so that -- the ic_status field is set, and because solving can make constraints -- more floatable. -- Precondition 2: the 'wanteds' are zonked, since floatKindEqualities -- is not monadic -- See Note [floatKindEqualities vs approximateWC] floatKindEqualities :: WantedConstraints -> Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) floatKindEqualities WantedConstraints wc = VarSet -> WantedConstraints -> Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) float_wc VarSet emptyVarSet WantedConstraints wc where float_wc :: TcTyCoVarSet -> WantedConstraints -> Maybe (Bag Ct, Bag DelayedError) float_wc :: VarSet -> WantedConstraints -> Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) float_wc VarSet trapping_tvs (WC { wc_simple :: WantedConstraints -> Cts wc_simple = Cts simples , wc_impl :: WantedConstraints -> Bag Implication wc_impl = Bag Implication implics , wc_errors :: WantedConstraints -> Bag DelayedError wc_errors = Bag DelayedError errs }) | (Ct -> Bool) -> Cts -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool all Ct -> Bool is_floatable Cts simples = do { (Cts inner_simples, Bag DelayedError inner_errs) <- (Implication -> Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError)) -> Bag Implication -> Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) forall (m :: * -> *) a b c. Monad m => (a -> m (Bag b, Bag c)) -> Bag a -> m (Bag b, Bag c) flatMapBagPairM (VarSet -> Implication -> Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) float_implic VarSet trapping_tvs) Bag Implication implics ; (Cts, Bag DelayedError) -> Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) forall a. a -> Maybe a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return ( Cts simples Cts -> Cts -> Cts forall a. Bag a -> Bag a -> Bag a `unionBags` Cts inner_simples , Bag DelayedError errs Bag DelayedError -> Bag DelayedError -> Bag DelayedError forall a. Bag a -> Bag a -> Bag a `unionBags` Bag DelayedError inner_errs) } | Bool otherwise = Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) forall a. Maybe a Nothing where is_floatable :: Ct -> Bool is_floatable Ct ct | Ct -> Bool insolubleEqCt Ct ct = Bool False | Bool otherwise = Ct -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfCt Ct ct VarSet -> VarSet -> Bool `disjointVarSet` VarSet trapping_tvs float_implic :: TcTyCoVarSet -> Implication -> Maybe (Bag Ct, Bag DelayedError) float_implic :: VarSet -> Implication -> Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) float_implic VarSet trapping_tvs (Implic { ic_wanted :: Implication -> WantedConstraints ic_wanted = WantedConstraints wanted, ic_given_eqs :: Implication -> HasGivenEqs ic_given_eqs = HasGivenEqs given_eqs , ic_skols :: Implication -> [TcTyVar] ic_skols = [TcTyVar] skols, ic_status :: Implication -> ImplicStatus ic_status = ImplicStatus status }) | ImplicStatus -> Bool isInsolubleStatus ImplicStatus status = Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) forall a. Maybe a Nothing -- A short cut /plus/ we must keep track of IC_BadTelescope | Bool otherwise = do { (Cts simples, Bag DelayedError holes) <- VarSet -> WantedConstraints -> Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) float_wc VarSet new_trapping_tvs WantedConstraints wanted ; Bool -> Maybe () -> Maybe () forall (f :: * -> *). Applicative f => Bool -> f () -> f () when (Bool -> Bool not (Cts -> Bool forall a. Bag a -> Bool isEmptyBag Cts simples) Bool -> Bool -> Bool && HasGivenEqs given_eqs HasGivenEqs -> HasGivenEqs -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool == HasGivenEqs MaybeGivenEqs) (Maybe () -> Maybe ()) -> Maybe () -> Maybe () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ Maybe () forall a. Maybe a Nothing -- If there are some constraints to float out, but we can't -- because we don't float out past local equalities -- (c.f GHC.Tc.Solver.approximateWC), then fail ; (Cts, Bag DelayedError) -> Maybe (Cts, Bag DelayedError) forall a. a -> Maybe a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Cts simples, Bag DelayedError holes) } where new_trapping_tvs :: VarSet new_trapping_tvs = VarSet trapping_tvs VarSet -> [TcTyVar] -> VarSet `extendVarSetList` [TcTyVar] skols {- Note [Failure in local type signatures] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When kind checking a type signature, we like to fail fast if we can't solve all the kind equality constraints, for two reasons: * A kind-bogus type signature may cause a cascade of knock-on errors if we let it pass * More seriously, we don't have a convenient term-level place to add deferred bindings for unsolved kind-equality constraints. In earlier GHCs this led to un-filled-in coercion holes, which caused GHC to crash with "fvProv falls into a hole" See #11563, #11520, #11516, #11399 But what about /local/ type signatures, mentioning in-scope type variables for which there might be 'given' equalities? For these we might not be able to solve all the equalities locally. Here's an example (T15076b): class (a ~ b) => C a b data SameKind :: k -> k -> Type where { SK :: SameKind a b } bar :: forall (a :: Type) (b :: Type). C a b => Proxy a -> Proxy b -> () bar _ _ = const () (undefined :: forall (x :: a) (y :: b). SameKind x y) Consider the type signature on 'undefined'. It's ill-kinded unless a~b. But the superclass of (C a b) means that indeed (a~b). So all should be well. BUT it's hard to see that when kind-checking the signature for undefined. We want to emit a residual (a~b) constraint, to solve later. Another possibility is that we might have something like F alpha ~ [Int] where alpha is bound further out, which might become soluble "later" when we learn more about alpha. So we want to emit those residual constraints. BUT it's no good simply wrapping all unsolved constraints from a type signature in an implication constraint to solve later. The problem is that we are going to /use/ that signature, including instantiate it. Say we have f :: forall a. (forall b. blah) -> blah2 f x = <body> To typecheck the definition of f, we have to instantiate those foralls. Moreover, any unsolved kind equalities will be coercion holes in the type. If we naively wrap them in an implication like forall a. (co1:k1~k2, forall b. co2:k3~k4) hoping to solve it later, we might end up filling in the holes co1 and co2 with coercions involving 'a' and 'b' -- but by now we've instantiated the type. Chaos! Moreover, the unsolved constraints might be skolem-escape things, and if we proceed with f bound to a nonsensical type, we get a cascade of follow-up errors. For example polykinds/T12593, T15577, and many others. So here's the plan (see tcHsSigType): * pushLevelAndSolveEqualitiesX: try to solve the constraints * kindGeneraliseSome: do kind generalisation * buildTvImplication: build an implication for the residual, unsolved constraint * simplifyAndEmitFlatConstraints: try to float out every unsolved equality inside that implication, in the hope that it constrains only global type variables, not the locally-quantified ones. * If we fail, or find an insoluble constraint, emit the implication, so that the errors will be reported, and fail. * If we succeed in floating all the equalities, promote them and re-emit them as flat constraint, not wrapped at all (since they don't mention any of the quantified variables. * Note that this float-and-promote step means that anonymous wildcards get floated to top level, as we want; see Note [Checking partial type signatures] in GHC.Tc.Gen.HsType. All this is done: * In GHC.Tc.Gen.HsType.tcHsSigType, as above * solveEqualities. Use this when there no kind-generalisation step to complicate matters; then we don't need to push levels, and can solve the equalities immediately without needing to wrap it in an implication constraint. (You'll generally see a kindGeneraliseNone nearby.) * In GHC.Tc.TyCl and GHC.Tc.TyCl.Instance; see calls to pushLevelAndSolveEqualitiesX, followed by quantification, and then reportUnsolvedEqualities. NB: we call reportUnsolvedEqualities before zonkTcTypeToType because the latter does not expect to see any un-filled-in coercions, which will happen if we have unsolved equalities. By calling reportUnsolvedEqualities first, which fails after reporting errors, we avoid that happening. See also #18062, #11506 Note [Wrapping failing kind equalities] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ In simplifyAndEmitFlatConstraints, if we fail to get down to simple flat constraints we will * re-emit the constraints so that they are reported * fail in the monad But there is a Terrible Danger that, if -fdefer-type-errors is on, and we just re-emit an insoluble constraint like (* ~ (*->*)), that we'll report only a warning and proceed with compilation. But if we ever fail in the monad it should be fatal; we should report an error and stop after the type checker. If not, chaos results: #19142. Our solution is this: * Even with -fdefer-type-errors, inside an implication with no place for value bindings (ic_binds = CoEvBindsVar), report failing equalities as errors. We have to do this anyway; see GHC.Tc.Errors Note [Failing equalities with no evidence bindings]. * Right here in simplifyAndEmitFlatConstraints, use buildTvImplication to wrap the failing constraint in a degenerate implication (no skolems, no theta), with ic_binds = CoEvBindsVar. This setting of `ic_binds` means that any failing equalities will lead to an error not a warning, irrespective of -fdefer-type-errors: see Note [Failing equalities with no evidence bindings] in GHC.Tc.Errors, and `maybeSwitchOffDefer` in that module. We still take care to bump the TcLevel of the implication. Partly, that ensures that nested implications have increasing level numbers which seems nice. But more specifically, suppose the outer level has a Given `(C ty)`, which has pending (not-yet-expanded) superclasses. Consider what happens when we process this implication constraint (which we have re-emitted) in that context: - in the inner implication we'll call `getPendingGivenScs`, - we /do not/ want to get the `(C ty)` from the outer level, lest we try to add an evidence term for the superclass, which we can't do because we have specifically set `ic_binds` = `CoEvBindsVar`. - as `getPendingGivenSCcs is careful to only get Givens from the /current/ level, and we bumped the `TcLevel` of the implication, we're OK. TL;DR: bump the `TcLevel` when creating the nested implication. If we don't we get a panic in `GHC.Tc.Utils.Monad.addTcEvBind` (#20043). We re-emit the implication rather than reporting the errors right now, so that the error messages are improved by other solving and defaulting. e.g. we prefer Cannot match 'Type->Type' with 'Type' to Cannot match 'Type->Type' with 'TYPE r0' Note [floatKindEqualities vs approximateWC] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ floatKindEqualities and approximateWC are strikingly similar to each other, but * floatKindEqualites tries to float /all/ equalities, and fails if it can't, or if any implication is insoluble. * approximateWC just floats out any constraints (not just equalities) that can float; it never fails. -} reportUnsolvedEqualities :: SkolemInfo -> [TcTyVar] -> TcLevel -> WantedConstraints -> TcM () -- Reports all unsolved wanteds provided; fails in the monad if there are any. -- -- The provided SkolemInfo and [TcTyVar] arguments are used in an implication to -- provide skolem info for any errors. reportUnsolvedEqualities :: SkolemInfo -> [TcTyVar] -> TcLevel -> WantedConstraints -> TcM () reportUnsolvedEqualities SkolemInfo skol_info [TcTyVar] skol_tvs TcLevel tclvl WantedConstraints wanted = SkolemInfoAnon -> [TcTyVar] -> TcLevel -> WantedConstraints -> TcM () report_unsolved_equalities (SkolemInfo -> SkolemInfoAnon getSkolemInfo SkolemInfo skol_info) [TcTyVar] skol_tvs TcLevel tclvl WantedConstraints wanted report_unsolved_equalities :: SkolemInfoAnon -> [TcTyVar] -> TcLevel -> WantedConstraints -> TcM () report_unsolved_equalities :: SkolemInfoAnon -> [TcTyVar] -> TcLevel -> WantedConstraints -> TcM () report_unsolved_equalities SkolemInfoAnon skol_info_anon [TcTyVar] skol_tvs TcLevel tclvl WantedConstraints wanted | WantedConstraints -> Bool isEmptyWC WantedConstraints wanted = () -> TcM () forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return () | Bool otherwise -- NB: we build an implication /even if skol_tvs is empty/, -- just to ensure that our level invariants hold, specifically -- (WantedInv). See Note [TcLevel invariants]. = TcM () -> TcM () forall r. TcM r -> TcM r checkNoErrs (TcM () -> TcM ()) -> TcM () -> TcM () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ -- Fail do { Implication implic <- SkolemInfoAnon -> [TcTyVar] -> TcLevel -> WantedConstraints -> TcM Implication buildTvImplication SkolemInfoAnon skol_info_anon [TcTyVar] skol_tvs TcLevel tclvl WantedConstraints wanted ; WantedConstraints -> TcM () reportAllUnsolved (Bag Implication -> WantedConstraints mkImplicWC (Implication -> Bag Implication forall a. a -> Bag a unitBag Implication implic)) } -- | Simplify top-level constraints, but without reporting any unsolved -- constraints nor unsafe overlapping. simplifyTopWanteds :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints -- See Note [Top-level Defaulting Plan] simplifyTopWanteds :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints simplifyTopWanteds WantedConstraints wanteds = do { WantedConstraints wc_first_go <- TcS WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. TcS a -> TcS a nestTcS (WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints solveWanteds WantedConstraints wanteds) -- This is where the main work happens ; DynFlags dflags <- TcS DynFlags forall (m :: * -> *). HasDynFlags m => m DynFlags getDynFlags ; DynFlags -> WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_tyvar_defaulting DynFlags dflags WantedConstraints wc_first_go } where try_tyvar_defaulting :: DynFlags -> WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_tyvar_defaulting :: DynFlags -> WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_tyvar_defaulting DynFlags dflags WantedConstraints wc | WantedConstraints -> Bool isEmptyWC WantedConstraints wc = WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return WantedConstraints wc | WantedConstraints -> Bool insolubleWC WantedConstraints wc , GeneralFlag -> DynFlags -> Bool gopt GeneralFlag Opt_PrintExplicitRuntimeReps DynFlags dflags -- See Note [Defaulting insolubles] = WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_class_defaulting WantedConstraints wc | Bool otherwise = do { -- Need to zonk first, as the WantedConstraints are not yet zonked. ; [TcTyVar] free_tvs <- [TcTyVar] -> TcS [TcTyVar] TcS.zonkTyCoVarsAndFVList (WantedConstraints -> [TcTyVar] tyCoVarsOfWCList WantedConstraints wc) ; let defaultable_tvs :: [TcTyVar] defaultable_tvs = (TcTyVar -> Bool) -> [TcTyVar] -> [TcTyVar] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] filter TcTyVar -> Bool can_default [TcTyVar] free_tvs can_default :: TcTyVar -> Bool can_default TcTyVar tv = TcTyVar -> Bool isTyVar TcTyVar tv -- Weed out coercion variables. Bool -> Bool -> Bool && TcTyVar -> Bool isMetaTyVar TcTyVar tv -- Weed out runtime-skolems in GHCi, which we definitely -- shouldn't try to default. Bool -> Bool -> Bool && Bool -> Bool not (TcTyVar tv TcTyVar -> VarSet -> Bool `elemVarSet` WantedConstraints -> VarSet nonDefaultableTyVarsOfWC WantedConstraints wc) -- Weed out variables for which defaulting would be unhelpful, -- e.g. alpha appearing in [W] alpha[conc] ~# rr[sk]. ; [Bool] defaulted <- (TcTyVar -> TcS Bool) -> [TcTyVar] -> TcS [Bool] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> [a] -> m [b] mapM TcTyVar -> TcS Bool defaultTyVarTcS [TcTyVar] defaultable_tvs -- Has unification side effects ; if [Bool] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *). Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool or [Bool] defaulted then do { WantedConstraints wc_residual <- TcS WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. TcS a -> TcS a nestTcS (WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints solveWanteds WantedConstraints wc) -- See Note [Must simplify after defaulting] ; WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_class_defaulting WantedConstraints wc_residual } else WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_class_defaulting WantedConstraints wc } -- No defaulting took place try_class_defaulting :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_class_defaulting :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_class_defaulting WantedConstraints wc | WantedConstraints -> Bool isEmptyWC WantedConstraints wc Bool -> Bool -> Bool || WantedConstraints -> Bool insolubleWC WantedConstraints wc -- See Note [Defaulting insolubles] = WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_callstack_defaulting WantedConstraints wc | Bool otherwise -- See Note [When to do type-class defaulting] = do { Bool something_happened <- WantedConstraints -> TcS Bool applyDefaultingRules WantedConstraints wc -- See Note [Top-level Defaulting Plan] ; if Bool something_happened then do { WantedConstraints wc_residual <- TcS WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. TcS a -> TcS a nestTcS (WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints solveWanteds WantedConstraints wc) ; WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_class_defaulting WantedConstraints wc_residual } -- See Note [Overview of implicit CallStacks] in GHC.Tc.Types.Evidence else WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_callstack_defaulting WantedConstraints wc } try_callstack_defaulting :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_callstack_defaulting :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints try_callstack_defaulting WantedConstraints wc | WantedConstraints -> Bool isEmptyWC WantedConstraints wc = WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return WantedConstraints wc | Bool otherwise = WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints defaultCallStacks WantedConstraints wc -- | Default any remaining @CallStack@ constraints to empty @CallStack@s. defaultCallStacks :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints -- See Note [Overview of implicit CallStacks] in GHC.Tc.Types.Evidence defaultCallStacks :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints defaultCallStacks WantedConstraints wanteds = do Cts simples <- Cts -> TcS Cts handle_simples (WantedConstraints -> Cts wc_simple WantedConstraints wanteds) Bag (Maybe Implication) mb_implics <- (Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication)) -> Bag Implication -> TcS (Bag (Maybe Implication)) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> Bag a -> m (Bag b) mapBagM Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) handle_implic (WantedConstraints -> Bag Implication wc_impl WantedConstraints wanteds) WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (WantedConstraints wanteds { wc_simple = simples , wc_impl = catBagMaybes mb_implics }) where handle_simples :: Cts -> TcS Cts handle_simples Cts simples = Bag (Maybe Ct) -> Cts forall a. Bag (Maybe a) -> Bag a catBagMaybes (Bag (Maybe Ct) -> Cts) -> TcS (Bag (Maybe Ct)) -> TcS Cts forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b <$> (Ct -> TcS (Maybe Ct)) -> Cts -> TcS (Bag (Maybe Ct)) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> Bag a -> m (Bag b) mapBagM Ct -> TcS (Maybe Ct) defaultCallStack Cts simples handle_implic :: Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) -- The Maybe is because solving the CallStack constraint -- may well allow us to discard the implication entirely handle_implic :: Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) handle_implic Implication implic | ImplicStatus -> Bool isSolvedStatus (Implication -> ImplicStatus ic_status Implication implic) = Maybe Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Implication -> Maybe Implication forall a. a -> Maybe a Just Implication implic) | Bool otherwise = do { WantedConstraints wanteds <- EvBindsVar -> TcS WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. EvBindsVar -> TcS a -> TcS a setEvBindsTcS (Implication -> EvBindsVar ic_binds Implication implic) (TcS WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints) -> TcS WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ -- defaultCallStack sets a binding, so -- we must set the correct binding group WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints defaultCallStacks (Implication -> WantedConstraints ic_wanted Implication implic) ; Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) setImplicationStatus (Implication implic { ic_wanted = wanteds }) } defaultCallStack :: Ct -> TcS (Maybe Ct) defaultCallStack Ct ct | ClassPred Class cls [Type] tys <- Type -> Pred classifyPredType (Ct -> Type ctPred Ct ct) , Just {} <- Class -> [Type] -> Maybe FastString isCallStackPred Class cls [Type] tys = do { CtEvidence -> EvCallStack -> TcS () solveCallStack (Ct -> CtEvidence ctEvidence Ct ct) EvCallStack EvCsEmpty ; Maybe Ct -> TcS (Maybe Ct) forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Maybe Ct forall a. Maybe a Nothing } defaultCallStack Ct ct = Maybe Ct -> TcS (Maybe Ct) forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Ct -> Maybe Ct forall a. a -> Maybe a Just Ct ct) {- Note [When to do type-class defaulting] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ In GHC 7.6 and 7.8.2, we did type-class defaulting only if insolubleWC was false, on the grounds that defaulting can't help solve insoluble constraints. But if we *don't* do defaulting we may report a whole lot of errors that would be solved by defaulting; these errors are quite spurious because fixing the single insoluble error means that defaulting happens again, which makes all the other errors go away. This is jolly confusing: #9033. So it seems better to always do type-class defaulting. However, always doing defaulting does mean that we'll do it in situations like this (#5934): run :: (forall s. GenST s) -> Int run = fromInteger 0 We don't unify the return type of fromInteger with the given function type, because the latter involves foralls. So we're left with (Num alpha, alpha ~ (forall s. GenST s) -> Int) Now we do defaulting, get alpha := Integer, and report that we can't match Integer with (forall s. GenST s) -> Int. That's not totally stupid, but perhaps a little strange. Another potential alternative would be to suppress *all* non-insoluble errors if there are *any* insoluble errors, anywhere, but that seems too drastic. Note [Don't default in syntactic equalities] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When there are unsolved syntactic equalities such as rr[sk] ~S# alpha[conc] we should not default alpha, lest we obtain a poor error message such as Couldn't match kind `rr' with `LiftedRep' We would rather preserve the original syntactic equality to be reported to the user, especially as the concrete metavariable alpha might store an informative origin for the user. Note [Must simplify after defaulting] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ We may have a deeply buried constraint (t:*) ~ (a:Open) which we couldn't solve because of the kind incompatibility, and 'a' is free. Then when we default 'a' we can solve the constraint. And we want to do that before starting in on type classes. We MUST do it before reporting errors, because it isn't an error! #7967 was due to this. Note [Top-level Defaulting Plan] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ We have considered two design choices for where/when to apply defaulting. (i) Do it in SimplCheck mode only /whenever/ you try to solve some simple constraints, maybe deep inside the context of implications. This used to be the case in GHC 7.4.1. (ii) Do it in a tight loop at simplifyTop, once all other constraints have finished. This is the current story. Option (i) had many disadvantages: a) Firstly, it was deep inside the actual solver. b) Secondly, it was dependent on the context (Infer a type signature, or Check a type signature, or Interactive) since we did not want to always start defaulting when inferring (though there is an exception to this, see Note [Default while Inferring]). c) It plainly did not work. Consider typecheck/should_compile/DfltProb2.hs: f :: Int -> Bool f x = const True (\y -> let w :: a -> a w a = const a (y+1) in w y) We will get an implication constraint (for beta the type of y): [untch=beta] forall a. 0 => Num beta which we really cannot default /while solving/ the implication, since beta is untouchable. Instead our new defaulting story is to pull defaulting out of the solver loop and go with option (ii), implemented at SimplifyTop. Namely: - First, have a go at solving the residual constraint of the whole program - Try to approximate it with a simple constraint - Figure out derived defaulting equations for that simple constraint - Go round the loop again if you did manage to get some equations Now, that has to do with class defaulting. However there exists type variable /kind/ defaulting. Again this is done at the top-level and the plan is: - At the top-level, once you had a go at solving the constraint, do figure out /all/ the touchable unification variables of the wanted constraints. - Apply defaulting to their kinds More details in Note [DefaultTyVar]. Note [Safe Haskell Overlapping Instances] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ In Safe Haskell, we apply an extra restriction to overlapping instances. The motive is to prevent untrusted code provided by a third-party, changing the behavior of trusted code through type-classes. This is due to the global and implicit nature of type-classes that can hide the source of the dictionary. Another way to state this is: if a module M compiles without importing another module N, changing M to import N shouldn't change the behavior of M. Overlapping instances with type-classes can violate this principle. However, overlapping instances aren't always unsafe. They are just unsafe when the most selected dictionary comes from untrusted code (code compiled with -XSafe) and overlaps instances provided by other modules. In particular, in Safe Haskell at a call site with overlapping instances, we apply the following rule to determine if it is a 'unsafe' overlap: 1) Most specific instance, I1, defined in an `-XSafe` compiled module. 2) I1 is an orphan instance or a MPTC. 3) At least one overlapped instance, Ix, is both: A) from a different module than I1 B) Ix is not marked `OVERLAPPABLE` This is a slightly involved heuristic, but captures the situation of an imported module N changing the behavior of existing code. For example, if condition (2) isn't violated, then the module author M must depend either on a type-class or type defined in N. Secondly, when should these heuristics be enforced? We enforced them when the type-class method call site is in a module marked `-XSafe` or `-XTrustworthy`. This allows `-XUnsafe` modules to operate without restriction, and for Safe Haskell inference to infer modules with unsafe overlaps as unsafe. One alternative design would be to also consider if an instance was imported as a `safe` import or not and only apply the restriction to instances imported safely. However, since instances are global and can be imported through more than one path, this alternative doesn't work. Note [Safe Haskell Overlapping Instances Implementation] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ How is this implemented? It's complicated! So we'll step through it all: 1) `InstEnv.lookupInstEnv` -- Performs instance resolution, so this is where we check if a particular type-class method call is safe or unsafe. We do this through the return type, `ClsInstLookupResult`, where the last parameter is a list of instances that are unsafe to overlap. When the method call is safe, the list is null. 2) `GHC.Tc.Solver.Interact.matchClassInst` -- This module drives the instance resolution / dictionary generation. The return type is `ClsInstResult`, which either says no instance matched, or one found, and if it was a safe or unsafe overlap. 3) `GHC.Tc.Solver.Interact.doTopReactDict` -- Takes a dictionary / class constraint and tries to resolve it by calling (in part) `matchClassInst`. The resolving mechanism has a work list (of constraints) that it process one at a time. If the constraint can't be resolved, it's added to an inert set. When compiling an `-XSafe` or `-XTrustworthy` module, we follow this approach as we know compilation should fail. These are handled as normal constraint resolution failures from here-on (see step 6). Otherwise, we may be inferring safety (or using `-Wunsafe`), and compilation should succeed, but print warnings and/or mark the compiled module as `-XUnsafe`. In this case, we call `insertSafeOverlapFailureTcS` which adds the unsafe (but resolved!) constraint to the `inert_safehask` field of `InertCans`. 4) `GHC.Tc.Solver.simplifyTop`: * Call simplifyTopWanteds, the top-level function for driving the simplifier for constraint resolution. * Once finished, call `getSafeOverlapFailures` to retrieve the list of overlapping instances that were successfully resolved, but unsafe. Remember, this is only applicable for generating warnings (`-Wunsafe`) or inferring a module unsafe. `-XSafe` and `-XTrustworthy` cause compilation failure by not resolving the unsafe constraint at all. * For unresolved constraints (all types), call `GHC.Tc.Errors.reportUnsolved`, while for resolved but unsafe overlapping dictionary constraints, call `GHC.Tc.Errors.warnAllUnsolved`. Both functions convert constraints into a warning message for the user. * In the case of `warnAllUnsolved` for resolved, but unsafe dictionary constraints, we collect the generated warning message (pop it) and call `GHC.Tc.Utils.Monad.recordUnsafeInfer` to mark the module we are compiling as unsafe, passing the warning message along as the reason. 5) `GHC.Tc.Errors.*Unsolved` -- Generates error messages for constraints by actually calling `InstEnv.lookupInstEnv` again! Yes, confusing, but all we know is the constraint that is unresolved or unsafe. For dictionary, all we know is that we need a dictionary of type C, but not what instances are available and how they overlap. So we once again call `lookupInstEnv` to figure that out so we can generate a helpful error message. 6) `GHC.Tc.Utils.Monad.recordUnsafeInfer` -- Save the unsafe result and reason in IORefs called `tcg_safe_infer` and `tcg_safe_infer_reason`. 7) `GHC.Driver.Main.tcRnModule'` -- Reads `tcg_safe_infer` after type-checking, calling `GHC.Driver.Main.markUnsafeInfer` (passing the reason along) when safe-inference failed. Note [No defaulting in the ambiguity check] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When simplifying constraints for the ambiguity check, we use solveWanteds, not simplifyTopWanteds, so that we do no defaulting. #11947 was an example: f :: Num a => Int -> Int This is ambiguous of course, but we don't want to default the (Num alpha) constraint to (Num Int)! Doing so gives a defaulting warning, but no error. Note [Defaulting insolubles] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ If a set of wanteds is insoluble, we have no hope of accepting the program. Yet we do not stop constraint solving, etc., because we may simplify the wanteds to produce better error messages. So, once we have an insoluble constraint, everything we do is just about producing helpful error messages. Should we default in this case or not? Let's look at an example (tcfail004): (f,g) = (1,2,3) With defaulting, we get a conflict between (a0,b0) and (Integer,Integer,Integer). Without defaulting, we get a conflict between (a0,b0) and (a1,b1,c1). I (Richard) find the latter more helpful. Several other test cases (e.g. tcfail005) suggest similarly. So: we should not do class defaulting with insolubles. On the other hand, RuntimeRep-defaulting is different. Witness tcfail078: f :: Integer i => i f = 0 Without RuntimeRep-defaulting, we GHC suggests that Integer should have kind TYPE r0 -> Constraint and then complains that r0 is actually untouchable (presumably, because it can't be sure if `Integer i` entails an equality). If we default, we are told of a clash between (* -> Constraint) and Constraint. The latter seems far better, suggesting we *should* do RuntimeRep-defaulting even on insolubles. But, evidently, not always. Witness UnliftedNewtypesInfinite: newtype Foo = FooC (# Int#, Foo #) This should fail with an occurs-check error on the kind of Foo (with -XUnliftedNewtypes). If we default RuntimeRep-vars, we get Expecting a lifted type, but ‘(# Int#, Foo #)’ is unlifted which is just plain wrong. Another situation in which we don't want to default involves concrete metavariables. In equalities such as alpha[conc] ~# rr[sk] , alpha[conc] ~# RR beta[tau] for a type family RR (all at kind RuntimeRep), we would prefer to report a representation-polymorphism error rather than default alpha and get error: Could not unify `rr` with `Lifted` / Could not unify `RR b0` with `Lifted` which is very confusing. For this reason, we weed out the concrete metavariables participating in such equalities in nonDefaultableTyVarsOfWC. Just looking at insolublity is not enough, as `alpha[conc] ~# RR beta[tau]` could become soluble after defaulting beta (see also #21430). Conclusion: we should do RuntimeRep-defaulting on insolubles only when the user does not want to hear about RuntimeRep stuff -- that is, when -fprint-explicit-runtime-reps is not set. However, we must still take care not to default concrete type variables participating in an equality with a non-concrete type, as seen in the last example above. -} ------------------ simplifyAmbiguityCheck :: Type -> WantedConstraints -> TcM () simplifyAmbiguityCheck :: Type -> WantedConstraints -> TcM () simplifyAmbiguityCheck Type ty WantedConstraints wanteds = do { String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "simplifyAmbiguityCheck {" (String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "type = " SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Type -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Type ty SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => doc -> doc -> doc $$ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "wanted = " SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints wanteds) ; (WantedConstraints final_wc, EvBindMap _) <- TcS WantedConstraints -> TcM (WantedConstraints, EvBindMap) forall a. TcS a -> TcM (a, EvBindMap) runTcS (TcS WantedConstraints -> TcM (WantedConstraints, EvBindMap)) -> TcS WantedConstraints -> TcM (WantedConstraints, EvBindMap) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints solveWanteds WantedConstraints wanteds -- NB: no defaulting! See Note [No defaulting in the ambiguity check] ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "End simplifyAmbiguityCheck }" SDoc forall doc. IsOutput doc => doc empty -- Normally report all errors; but with -XAllowAmbiguousTypes -- report only insoluble ones, since they represent genuinely -- inaccessible code ; Bool allow_ambiguous <- Extension -> TcM Bool forall gbl lcl. Extension -> TcRnIf gbl lcl Bool xoptM Extension LangExt.AllowAmbiguousTypes ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "reportUnsolved(ambig) {" SDoc forall doc. IsOutput doc => doc empty ; Bool -> TcM () -> TcM () forall (f :: * -> *). Applicative f => Bool -> f () -> f () unless (Bool allow_ambiguous Bool -> Bool -> Bool && Bool -> Bool not (WantedConstraints -> Bool insolubleWC WantedConstraints final_wc)) (TcM (Bag EvBind) -> TcM () forall a. TcM a -> TcM () discardResult (WantedConstraints -> TcM (Bag EvBind) reportUnsolved WantedConstraints final_wc)) ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "reportUnsolved(ambig) }" SDoc forall doc. IsOutput doc => doc empty ; () -> TcM () forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return () } ------------------ simplifyInteractive :: WantedConstraints -> TcM (Bag EvBind) simplifyInteractive :: WantedConstraints -> TcM (Bag EvBind) simplifyInteractive WantedConstraints wanteds = String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "simplifyInteractive" SDoc forall doc. IsOutput doc => doc empty TcM () -> TcM (Bag EvBind) -> TcM (Bag EvBind) forall a b. IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) b -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) b forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => m a -> m b -> m b >> WantedConstraints -> TcM (Bag EvBind) simplifyTop WantedConstraints wanteds ------------------ simplifyDefault :: ThetaType -- Wanted; has no type variables in it -> TcM Bool -- Return if the constraint is soluble simplifyDefault :: [Type] -> TcM Bool simplifyDefault [Type] theta = do { String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "simplifyDefault" SDoc forall doc. IsOutput doc => doc empty ; [CtEvidence] wanteds <- CtOrigin -> [Type] -> TcM [CtEvidence] newWanteds CtOrigin DefaultOrigin [Type] theta ; (WantedConstraints unsolved, EvBindMap _) <- TcS WantedConstraints -> TcM (WantedConstraints, EvBindMap) forall a. TcS a -> TcM (a, EvBindMap) runTcS (WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints solveWanteds ([CtEvidence] -> WantedConstraints mkSimpleWC [CtEvidence] wanteds)) ; Bool -> TcM Bool forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (WantedConstraints -> Bool isEmptyWC WantedConstraints unsolved) } ------------------ {- Note [Pattern match warnings with insoluble Givens] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A pattern match on a GADT can introduce new type-level information, which needs to be analysed in order to get the expected pattern match warnings. For example: > type IsBool :: Type -> Constraint > type family IsBool a where > IsBool Bool = () > IsBool b = b ~ Bool > > data T a where > MkTInt :: Int -> T Int > MkTBool :: IsBool b => b -> T b > > f :: T Int -> Int > f (MkTInt i) = i The pattern matching performed by `f` is complete: we can't ever call `f (MkTBool b)`, as type-checking that application would require producing evidence for `Int ~ Bool`, which can't be done. The pattern match checker uses `tcCheckGivens` to accumulate all the Given constraints, and relies on `tcCheckGivens` to return Nothing if the Givens become insoluble. `tcCheckGivens` in turn relies on `insolubleCt` to identify these insoluble constraints. So the precise definition of `insolubleCt` has a big effect on pattern match overlap warnings. To detect this situation, we check whether there are any insoluble Given constraints. In the example above, the insoluble constraint was an equality constraint, but it is also important to detect custom type errors: > type NotInt :: Type -> Constraint > type family NotInt a where > NotInt Int = TypeError (Text "That's Int, silly.") > NotInt _ = () > > data R a where > MkT1 :: a -> R a > MkT2 :: NotInt a => R a > > foo :: R Int -> Int > foo (MkT1 x) = x To see that we can't call `foo (MkT2)`, we must detect that `NotInt Int` is insoluble because it is a custom type error. Failing to do so proved quite inconvenient for users, as evidence by the tickets #11503 #14141 #16377 #20180. Test cases: T11503, T14141. Examples of constraints that tcCheckGivens considers insoluble: - Int ~ Bool, - Coercible Float Word, - TypeError msg. Non-examples: - constraints which we know aren't satisfied, e.g. Show (Int -> Int) when no such instance is in scope, - Eq (TypeError msg), - C (Int ~ Bool), with @class C (c :: Constraint)@. -} tcCheckGivens :: InertSet -> Bag EvVar -> TcM (Maybe InertSet) -- ^ Return (Just new_inerts) if the Givens are satisfiable, Nothing if definitely -- contradictory. -- -- See Note [Pattern match warnings with insoluble Givens] above. tcCheckGivens :: InertSet -> Bag TcTyVar -> TcM (Maybe InertSet) tcCheckGivens InertSet inerts Bag TcTyVar given_ids = do (Bool sat, InertSet new_inerts) <- InertSet -> TcS Bool -> TcM (Bool, InertSet) forall a. InertSet -> TcS a -> TcM (a, InertSet) runTcSInerts InertSet inerts (TcS Bool -> TcM (Bool, InertSet)) -> TcS Bool -> TcM (Bool, InertSet) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "checkGivens {" (InertSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr InertSet inerts SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Bag TcTyVar -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Bag TcTyVar given_ids) TcLclEnv lcl_env <- TcS TcLclEnv TcS.getLclEnv let given_loc :: CtLoc given_loc = TcLevel -> SkolemInfoAnon -> TcLclEnv -> CtLoc mkGivenLoc TcLevel topTcLevel (SkolemInfo -> SkolemInfoAnon getSkolemInfo SkolemInfo HasCallStack => SkolemInfo unkSkol) TcLclEnv lcl_env let given_cts :: [Ct] given_cts = CtLoc -> [TcTyVar] -> [Ct] mkGivens CtLoc given_loc (Bag TcTyVar -> [TcTyVar] forall a. Bag a -> [a] bagToList Bag TcTyVar given_ids) -- See Note [Superclasses and satisfiability] [Ct] -> TcS () solveSimpleGivens [Ct] given_cts Cts insols <- TcS Cts getInertInsols Cts insols <- Cts -> TcS Cts try_harder Cts insols String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "checkGivens }" (Cts -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Cts insols) Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Cts -> Bool forall a. Bag a -> Bool isEmptyBag Cts insols) Maybe InertSet -> TcM (Maybe InertSet) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Maybe InertSet -> TcM (Maybe InertSet)) -> Maybe InertSet -> TcM (Maybe InertSet) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ if Bool sat then InertSet -> Maybe InertSet forall a. a -> Maybe a Just InertSet new_inerts else Maybe InertSet forall a. Maybe a Nothing where try_harder :: Cts -> TcS Cts -- Maybe we have to search up the superclass chain to find -- an unsatisfiable constraint. Example: pmcheck/T3927b. -- At the moment we try just once try_harder :: Cts -> TcS Cts try_harder Cts insols | Bool -> Bool not (Cts -> Bool forall a. Bag a -> Bool isEmptyBag Cts insols) -- We've found that it's definitely unsatisfiable = Cts -> TcS Cts forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Cts insols -- Hurrah -- stop now. | Bool otherwise = do { [Ct] pending_given <- TcS [Ct] getPendingGivenScs ; [Ct] new_given <- [Ct] -> TcS [Ct] makeSuperClasses [Ct] pending_given ; [Ct] -> TcS () solveSimpleGivens [Ct] new_given ; TcS Cts getInertInsols } tcCheckWanteds :: InertSet -> ThetaType -> TcM Bool -- ^ Return True if the Wanteds are soluble, False if not tcCheckWanteds :: InertSet -> [Type] -> TcM Bool tcCheckWanteds InertSet inerts [Type] wanteds = do [CtEvidence] cts <- CtOrigin -> [Type] -> TcM [CtEvidence] newWanteds CtOrigin PatCheckOrigin [Type] wanteds (Bool sat, InertSet _new_inerts) <- InertSet -> TcS Bool -> TcM (Bool, InertSet) forall a. InertSet -> TcS a -> TcM (a, InertSet) runTcSInerts InertSet inerts (TcS Bool -> TcM (Bool, InertSet)) -> TcS Bool -> TcM (Bool, InertSet) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "checkWanteds {" (InertSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr InertSet inerts SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] wanteds) -- See Note [Superclasses and satisfiability] WantedConstraints wcs <- WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints solveWanteds ([CtEvidence] -> WantedConstraints mkSimpleWC [CtEvidence] cts) String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "checkWanteds }" (WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints wcs) Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (WantedConstraints -> Bool isSolvedWC WantedConstraints wcs) Bool -> TcM Bool forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool sat -- | Normalise a type as much as possible using the given constraints. -- See @Note [tcNormalise]@. tcNormalise :: InertSet -> Type -> TcM Type tcNormalise :: InertSet -> Type -> TcM Type tcNormalise InertSet inerts Type ty = do { CtLoc norm_loc <- CtOrigin -> Maybe TypeOrKind -> TcM CtLoc getCtLocM CtOrigin PatCheckOrigin Maybe TypeOrKind forall a. Maybe a Nothing ; (Type res, InertSet _new_inerts) <- InertSet -> TcS Type -> TcM (Type, InertSet) forall a. InertSet -> TcS a -> TcM (a, InertSet) runTcSInerts InertSet inerts (TcS Type -> TcM (Type, InertSet)) -> TcS Type -> TcM (Type, InertSet) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do { String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "tcNormalise {" (InertSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr InertSet inerts) ; Type ty' <- CtLoc -> Type -> TcS Type rewriteType CtLoc norm_loc Type ty ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "tcNormalise }" (Type -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Type ty') ; Type -> TcS Type forall a. a -> TcS a forall (f :: * -> *) a. Applicative f => a -> f a pure Type ty' } ; Type -> TcM Type forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Type res } {- Note [Superclasses and satisfiability] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Expand superclasses before starting, because (Int ~ Bool), has (Int ~~ Bool) as a superclass, which in turn has (Int ~N# Bool) as a superclass, and it's the latter that is insoluble. See Note [The equality types story] in GHC.Builtin.Types.Prim. If we fail to prove unsatisfiability we (arbitrarily) try just once to find superclasses, using try_harder. Reason: we might have a type signature f :: F op (Implements push) => .. where F is a type function. This happened in #3972. We could do more than once but we'd have to have /some/ limit: in the the recursive case, we would go on forever in the common case where the constraints /are/ satisfiable (#10592 comment:12!). For straightforward situations without type functions the try_harder step does nothing. Note [tcNormalise] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ tcNormalise is a rather atypical entrypoint to the constraint solver. Whereas most invocations of the constraint solver are intended to simplify a set of constraints or to decide if a particular set of constraints is satisfiable, the purpose of tcNormalise is to take a type, plus some locally solved constraints in the form of an InertSet, and normalise the type as much as possible with respect to those constraints. It does *not* reduce type or data family applications or look through newtypes. Why is this useful? As one example, when coverage-checking an EmptyCase expression, it's possible that the type of the scrutinee will only reduce if some local equalities are solved for. See "Wrinkle: Local equalities" in Note [Type normalisation] in "GHC.HsToCore.Pmc". To accomplish its stated goal, tcNormalise first initialises the solver monad with the given InertCans, then uses rewriteType to simplify the desired type with respect to the Givens in the InertCans. *********************************************************************************** * * * Inference * * *********************************************************************************** Note [Inferring the type of a let-bound variable] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Consider f x = rhs To infer f's type we do the following: * Gather the constraints for the RHS with ambient level *one more than* the current one. This is done by the call pushLevelAndCaptureConstraints (tcMonoBinds...) in GHC.Tc.Gen.Bind.tcPolyInfer * Call simplifyInfer to simplify the constraints and decide what to quantify over. We pass in the level used for the RHS constraints, here called rhs_tclvl. This ensures that the implication constraint we generate, if any, has a strictly-increased level compared to the ambient level outside the let binding. Note [Inferring principal types] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ We don't always infer principal types. For instance, the inferred type for > f x = show [x] is > f :: Show a => a -> String This is not the most general type if we allow flexible contexts. Indeed, if we try to write the following > g :: Show [a] => a -> String > g x = f x we get the error: * Could not deduce (Show a) arising from a use of `f' from the context: Show [a] Though replacing f x in the right-hand side of g with the definition of f x works, the call to f x does not. This is the hallmark of unprincip{led,al} types. Another example: > class C a > class D a where > d :: a > instance C a => D a where > d = undefined > h _ = d -- argument is to avoid the monomorphism restriction The inferred type for h is > h :: C a => t -> a even though > h :: D a => t -> a is more general. The fix is easy: don't simplify constraints before inferring a type. That is, have the inferred type quantify over all constraints that arise in a definition's right-hand side, even if they are simplifiable. Unfortunately, this would yield all manner of unwieldy types, and so we won't do so. -} -- | How should we choose which constraints to quantify over? data InferMode = ApplyMR -- ^ Apply the monomorphism restriction, -- never quantifying over any constraints | EagerDefaulting -- ^ See Note [TcRnExprMode] in "GHC.Tc.Module", -- the :type +d case; this mode refuses -- to quantify over any defaultable constraint | NoRestrictions -- ^ Quantify over any constraint that -- satisfies pickQuantifiablePreds instance Outputable InferMode where ppr :: InferMode -> SDoc ppr InferMode ApplyMR = String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "ApplyMR" ppr InferMode EagerDefaulting = String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "EagerDefaulting" ppr InferMode NoRestrictions = String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "NoRestrictions" simplifyInfer :: TcLevel -- Used when generating the constraints -> InferMode -> [TcIdSigInst] -- Any signatures (possibly partial) -> [(Name, TcTauType)] -- Variables to be generalised, -- and their tau-types -> WantedConstraints -> TcM ([TcTyVar], -- Quantify over these type variables [EvVar], -- ... and these constraints (fully zonked) TcEvBinds, -- ... binding these evidence variables Bool) -- True <=> the residual constraints are insoluble simplifyInfer :: TcLevel -> InferMode -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [(Name, Type)] -> WantedConstraints -> TcM ([TcTyVar], [TcTyVar], TcEvBinds, Bool) simplifyInfer TcLevel rhs_tclvl InferMode infer_mode [TcIdSigInst] sigs [(Name, Type)] name_taus WantedConstraints wanteds | WantedConstraints -> Bool isEmptyWC WantedConstraints wanteds = do { -- When quantifying, we want to preserve any order of variables as they -- appear in partial signatures. cf. decideQuantifiedTyVars let psig_tv_tys :: [Type] psig_tv_tys = [ TcTyVar -> Type mkTyVarTy TcTyVar tv | TcIdSigInst sig <- [TcIdSigInst] partial_sigs , (Name _,Bndr TcTyVar tv Specificity _) <- TcIdSigInst -> [(Name, InvisTVBinder)] sig_inst_skols TcIdSigInst sig ] psig_theta :: [Type] psig_theta = [ Type pred | TcIdSigInst sig <- [TcIdSigInst] partial_sigs , Type pred <- TcIdSigInst -> [Type] sig_inst_theta TcIdSigInst sig ] ; CandidatesQTvs dep_vars <- [Type] -> TcM CandidatesQTvs candidateQTyVarsOfTypes ([Type] psig_tv_tys [Type] -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [Type] psig_theta [Type] -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ ((Name, Type) -> Type) -> [(Name, Type)] -> [Type] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (Name, Type) -> Type forall a b. (a, b) -> b snd [(Name, Type)] name_taus) ; SkolemInfo skol_info <- SkolemInfoAnon -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) SkolemInfo forall (m :: * -> *). MonadIO m => SkolemInfoAnon -> m SkolemInfo mkSkolemInfo ([(Name, Type)] -> SkolemInfoAnon InferSkol [(Name, Type)] name_taus) ; [TcTyVar] qtkvs <- SkolemInfo -> NonStandardDefaultingStrategy -> CandidatesQTvs -> TcM [TcTyVar] quantifyTyVars SkolemInfo skol_info NonStandardDefaultingStrategy DefaultNonStandardTyVars CandidatesQTvs dep_vars ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "simplifyInfer: empty WC" ([(Name, Type)] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [(Name, Type)] name_taus SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => doc -> doc -> doc $$ [TcTyVar] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [TcTyVar] qtkvs) ; ([TcTyVar], [TcTyVar], TcEvBinds, Bool) -> TcM ([TcTyVar], [TcTyVar], TcEvBinds, Bool) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return ([TcTyVar] qtkvs, [], TcEvBinds emptyTcEvBinds, Bool False) } | Bool otherwise = do { String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "simplifyInfer {" (SDoc -> TcM ()) -> SDoc -> TcM () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "sigs =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [TcIdSigInst] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [TcIdSigInst] sigs , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "binds =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [(Name, Type)] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [(Name, Type)] name_taus , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "rhs_tclvl =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> TcLevel -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr TcLevel rhs_tclvl , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "infer_mode =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> InferMode -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr InferMode infer_mode , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "(unzonked) wanted =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints wanteds ] ; let psig_theta :: [Type] psig_theta = (TcIdSigInst -> [Type]) -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [Type] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b] concatMap TcIdSigInst -> [Type] sig_inst_theta [TcIdSigInst] partial_sigs -- First do full-blown solving -- NB: we must gather up all the bindings from doing -- this solving; hence (runTcSWithEvBinds ev_binds_var). -- And note that since there are nested implications, -- calling solveWanteds will side-effect their evidence -- bindings, so we can't just revert to the input -- constraint. ; EvBindsVar ev_binds_var <- TcM EvBindsVar TcM.newTcEvBinds ; [CtEvidence] psig_evs <- CtOrigin -> [Type] -> TcM [CtEvidence] newWanteds CtOrigin AnnOrigin [Type] psig_theta ; WantedConstraints wanted_transformed <- TcLevel -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints forall a. TcLevel -> TcM a -> TcM a setTcLevel TcLevel rhs_tclvl (TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints) -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ EvBindsVar -> TcS WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints forall a. EvBindsVar -> TcS a -> TcM a runTcSWithEvBinds EvBindsVar ev_binds_var (TcS WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints) -> TcS WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints solveWanteds ([CtEvidence] -> WantedConstraints mkSimpleWC [CtEvidence] psig_evs WantedConstraints -> WantedConstraints -> WantedConstraints `andWC` WantedConstraints wanteds) -- psig_evs : see Note [Add signature contexts as wanteds] -- See Note [Inferring principal types] -- Find quant_pred_candidates, the predicates that -- we'll consider quantifying over -- NB1: wanted_transformed does not include anything provable from -- the psig_theta; it's just the extra bit -- NB2: We do not do any defaulting when inferring a type, this can lead -- to less polymorphic types, see Note [Default while Inferring] ; WantedConstraints wanted_transformed <- WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints TcM.zonkWC WantedConstraints wanted_transformed ; let definite_error :: Bool definite_error = WantedConstraints -> Bool insolubleWC WantedConstraints wanted_transformed -- See Note [Quantification with errors] quant_pred_candidates :: [Type] quant_pred_candidates | Bool definite_error = [] | Bool otherwise = Cts -> [Type] ctsPreds (Bool -> WantedConstraints -> Cts approximateWC Bool False WantedConstraints wanted_transformed) -- Decide what type variables and constraints to quantify -- NB: quant_pred_candidates is already fully zonked -- NB: bound_theta are constraints we want to quantify over, -- including the psig_theta, which we always quantify over -- NB: bound_theta are fully zonked -- rec {..}: see Note [Keeping SkolemInfo inside a SkolemTv] -- in GHC.Tc.Utils.TcType ; rec { ([TcTyVar] qtvs, [Type] bound_theta, VarSet co_vars) <- SkolemInfo -> InferMode -> TcLevel -> [(Name, Type)] -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [Type] -> TcM ([TcTyVar], [Type], VarSet) decideQuantification SkolemInfo skol_info InferMode infer_mode TcLevel rhs_tclvl [(Name, Type)] name_taus [TcIdSigInst] partial_sigs [Type] quant_pred_candidates ; [TcTyVar] bound_theta_vars <- (Type -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) TcTyVar) -> [Type] -> TcM [TcTyVar] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> [a] -> m [b] mapM Type -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) TcTyVar forall gbl lcl. Type -> TcRnIf gbl lcl TcTyVar TcM.newEvVar [Type] bound_theta ; let full_theta :: [Type] full_theta = (TcTyVar -> Type) -> [TcTyVar] -> [Type] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map TcTyVar -> Type idType [TcTyVar] bound_theta_vars ; SkolemInfo skol_info <- SkolemInfoAnon -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) SkolemInfo forall (m :: * -> *). MonadIO m => SkolemInfoAnon -> m SkolemInfo mkSkolemInfo ([(Name, Type)] -> SkolemInfoAnon InferSkol [ (Name name, [ForAllTyBinder] -> [Type] -> Type -> Type (() :: Constraint) => [ForAllTyBinder] -> [Type] -> Type -> Type mkSigmaTy [] [Type] full_theta Type ty) | (Name name, Type ty) <- [(Name, Type)] name_taus ]) } -- Now emit the residual constraint ; TcLevel -> EvBindsVar -> [(Name, Type)] -> VarSet -> [TcTyVar] -> [TcTyVar] -> WantedConstraints -> TcM () emitResidualConstraints TcLevel rhs_tclvl EvBindsVar ev_binds_var [(Name, Type)] name_taus VarSet co_vars [TcTyVar] qtvs [TcTyVar] bound_theta_vars WantedConstraints wanted_transformed -- All done! ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "} simplifyInfer/produced residual implication for quantification" (SDoc -> TcM ()) -> SDoc -> TcM () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "quant_pred_candidates =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] quant_pred_candidates , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "psig_theta =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] psig_theta , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "bound_theta =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [TcTyVar] -> SDoc pprCoreBinders [TcTyVar] bound_theta_vars , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "qtvs =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [TcTyVar] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [TcTyVar] qtvs , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "definite_error =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Bool -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Bool definite_error ] ; ([TcTyVar], [TcTyVar], TcEvBinds, Bool) -> TcM ([TcTyVar], [TcTyVar], TcEvBinds, Bool) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return ( [TcTyVar] qtvs, [TcTyVar] bound_theta_vars, EvBindsVar -> TcEvBinds TcEvBinds EvBindsVar ev_binds_var, Bool definite_error ) } -- NB: bound_theta_vars must be fully zonked where partial_sigs :: [TcIdSigInst] partial_sigs = (TcIdSigInst -> Bool) -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [TcIdSigInst] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] filter TcIdSigInst -> Bool isPartialSig [TcIdSigInst] sigs -------------------- emitResidualConstraints :: TcLevel -> EvBindsVar -> [(Name, TcTauType)] -> CoVarSet -> [TcTyVar] -> [EvVar] -> WantedConstraints -> TcM () -- Emit the remaining constraints from the RHS. emitResidualConstraints :: TcLevel -> EvBindsVar -> [(Name, Type)] -> VarSet -> [TcTyVar] -> [TcTyVar] -> WantedConstraints -> TcM () emitResidualConstraints TcLevel rhs_tclvl EvBindsVar ev_binds_var [(Name, Type)] name_taus VarSet co_vars [TcTyVar] qtvs [TcTyVar] full_theta_vars WantedConstraints wanteds | WantedConstraints -> Bool isEmptyWC WantedConstraints wanteds = () -> TcM () forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return () | Bool otherwise = do { Cts wanted_simple <- Cts -> TcM Cts TcM.zonkSimples (WantedConstraints -> Cts wc_simple WantedConstraints wanteds) ; let (Cts outer_simple, Cts inner_simple) = (Ct -> Bool) -> Cts -> (Cts, Cts) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> Bag a -> (Bag a, Bag a) partitionBag Ct -> Bool is_mono Cts wanted_simple is_mono :: Ct -> Bool is_mono Ct ct | Just TcTyVar ct_ev_id <- Ct -> Maybe TcTyVar wantedEvId_maybe Ct ct = TcTyVar ct_ev_id TcTyVar -> VarSet -> Bool `elemVarSet` VarSet co_vars | Bool otherwise = Bool False -- Reason for the partition: -- see Note [Emitting the residual implication in simplifyInfer] -- Already done by defaultTyVarsAndSimplify -- ; _ <- TcM.promoteTyVarSet (tyCoVarsOfCts outer_simple) ; let inner_wanted :: WantedConstraints inner_wanted = WantedConstraints wanteds { wc_simple = inner_simple } ; Bag Implication implics <- if WantedConstraints -> Bool isEmptyWC WantedConstraints inner_wanted then Bag Implication -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) (Bag Implication) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bag Implication forall a. Bag a emptyBag else do Implication implic1 <- TcM Implication newImplication Bag Implication -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) (Bag Implication) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Bag Implication -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) (Bag Implication)) -> Bag Implication -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) (Bag Implication) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ Implication -> Bag Implication forall a. a -> Bag a unitBag (Implication -> Bag Implication) -> Implication -> Bag Implication forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ Implication implic1 { ic_tclvl = rhs_tclvl , ic_skols = qtvs , ic_given = full_theta_vars , ic_wanted = inner_wanted , ic_binds = ev_binds_var , ic_given_eqs = MaybeGivenEqs , ic_info = skol_info } ; WantedConstraints -> TcM () emitConstraints (WantedConstraints emptyWC { wc_simple = outer_simple , wc_impl = implics }) } where full_theta :: [Type] full_theta = (TcTyVar -> Type) -> [TcTyVar] -> [Type] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map TcTyVar -> Type idType [TcTyVar] full_theta_vars skol_info :: SkolemInfoAnon skol_info = [(Name, Type)] -> SkolemInfoAnon InferSkol [ (Name name, [ForAllTyBinder] -> [Type] -> Type -> Type (() :: Constraint) => [ForAllTyBinder] -> [Type] -> Type -> Type mkSigmaTy [] [Type] full_theta Type ty) | (Name name, Type ty) <- [(Name, Type)] name_taus ] -- We don't add the quantified variables here, because they are -- also bound in ic_skols and we want them to be tidied -- uniformly. -------------------- ctsPreds :: Cts -> [PredType] ctsPreds :: Cts -> [Type] ctsPreds Cts cts = [ CtEvidence -> Type ctEvPred CtEvidence ev | Ct ct <- Cts -> [Ct] forall a. Bag a -> [a] bagToList Cts cts , let ev :: CtEvidence ev = Ct -> CtEvidence ctEvidence Ct ct ] findInferredDiff :: TcThetaType -> TcThetaType -> TcM TcThetaType -- Given a partial type signature f :: (C a, D a, _) => blah -- and the inferred constraints (X a, D a, Y a, C a) -- compute the difference, which is what will fill in the "_" underscore, -- In this case the diff is (X a, Y a). findInferredDiff :: [Type] -> [Type] -> TcM [Type] findInferredDiff [Type] annotated_theta [Type] inferred_theta | [Type] -> Bool forall a. [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [Type] annotated_theta -- Short cut the common case when the user didn't = [Type] -> TcM [Type] forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return [Type] inferred_theta -- write any constraints in the partial signature | Bool otherwise = TcM [Type] -> TcM [Type] forall r. TcM r -> TcM r pushTcLevelM_ (TcM [Type] -> TcM [Type]) -> TcM [Type] -> TcM [Type] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do { TcLclEnv lcl_env <- TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv TcLclEnv forall gbl lcl. TcRnIf gbl lcl lcl TcM.getLclEnv ; [TcTyVar] given_ids <- (Type -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) TcTyVar) -> [Type] -> TcM [TcTyVar] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> [a] -> m [b] mapM Type -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) TcTyVar forall gbl lcl. Type -> TcRnIf gbl lcl TcTyVar TcM.newEvVar [Type] annotated_theta ; [CtEvidence] wanteds <- CtOrigin -> [Type] -> TcM [CtEvidence] newWanteds CtOrigin AnnOrigin [Type] inferred_theta ; let given_loc :: CtLoc given_loc = TcLevel -> SkolemInfoAnon -> TcLclEnv -> CtLoc mkGivenLoc TcLevel topTcLevel (SkolemInfo -> SkolemInfoAnon getSkolemInfo SkolemInfo HasCallStack => SkolemInfo unkSkol) TcLclEnv lcl_env given_cts :: [Ct] given_cts = CtLoc -> [TcTyVar] -> [Ct] mkGivens CtLoc given_loc [TcTyVar] given_ids ; (WantedConstraints residual, EvBindMap _) <- TcS WantedConstraints -> TcM (WantedConstraints, EvBindMap) forall a. TcS a -> TcM (a, EvBindMap) runTcS (TcS WantedConstraints -> TcM (WantedConstraints, EvBindMap)) -> TcS WantedConstraints -> TcM (WantedConstraints, EvBindMap) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do { () _ <- [Ct] -> TcS () solveSimpleGivens [Ct] given_cts ; Cts -> TcS WantedConstraints solveSimpleWanteds ([Ct] -> Cts forall a. [a] -> Bag a listToBag ((CtEvidence -> Ct) -> [CtEvidence] -> [Ct] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map CtEvidence -> Ct mkNonCanonical [CtEvidence] wanteds)) } -- NB: There are no meta tyvars fromn this level annotated_theta -- because we have either promoted them or unified them -- See `Note [Quantification and partial signatures]` Wrinkle 2 ; [Type] -> TcM [Type] forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return ((Ct -> Type) -> [Ct] -> [Type] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (Type -> Type box_pred (Type -> Type) -> (Ct -> Type) -> Ct -> Type forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . Ct -> Type ctPred) ([Ct] -> [Type]) -> [Ct] -> [Type] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ Cts -> [Ct] forall a. Bag a -> [a] bagToList (Cts -> [Ct]) -> Cts -> [Ct] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ WantedConstraints -> Cts wc_simple WantedConstraints residual) } where box_pred :: PredType -> PredType box_pred :: Type -> Type box_pred Type pred = case Type -> Pred classifyPredType Type pred of EqPred EqRel rel Type ty1 Type ty2 | Just (Class cls,[Type] tys) <- EqRel -> Type -> Type -> Maybe (Class, [Type]) boxEqPred EqRel rel Type ty1 Type ty2 -> Class -> [Type] -> Type mkClassPred Class cls [Type] tys | Bool otherwise -> String -> SDoc -> Type forall a. HasCallStack => String -> SDoc -> a pprPanic String "findInferredDiff" (Type -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Type pred) Pred _other -> Type pred {- Note [Emitting the residual implication in simplifyInfer] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Consider f = e where f's type is inferred to be something like (a, Proxy k (Int |> co)) and we have an as-yet-unsolved, or perhaps insoluble, constraint [W] co :: Type ~ k We can't form types like (forall co. blah), so we can't generalise over the coercion variable, and hence we can't generalise over things free in its kind, in the case 'k'. But we can still generalise over 'a'. So we'll generalise to f :: forall a. (a, Proxy k (Int |> co)) Now we do NOT want to form the residual implication constraint forall a. [W] co :: Type ~ k because then co's eventual binding (which will be a value binding if we use -fdefer-type-errors) won't scope over the entire binding for 'f' (whose type mentions 'co'). Instead, just as we don't generalise over 'co', we should not bury its constraint inside the implication. Instead, we must put it outside. That is the reason for the partitionBag in emitResidualConstraints, which takes the CoVars free in the inferred type, and pulls their constraints out. (NB: this set of CoVars should be closed-over-kinds.) All rather subtle; see #14584. Note [Add signature contexts as wanteds] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Consider this (#11016): f2 :: (?x :: Int) => _ f2 = ?x or this class C a b | a -> b g :: C p q => p -> q f3 :: C Int b => _ f3 = g (3::Int) We'll use plan InferGen because there are holes in the type. But: * For f2 we want to have the (?x :: Int) constraint floating around so that the functional dependencies kick in. Otherwise the occurrence of ?x on the RHS produces constraint (?x :: alpha), and we won't unify alpha:=Int. * For f3 want the (C Int b) constraint from the partial signature to meet the (C Int beta) constraint we get from the call to g; again, fundeps Solution: in simplifyInfer, we add the constraints from the signature as extra Wanteds. Why Wanteds? Wouldn't it be neater to treat them as Givens? Alas that would mess up (GivenInv) in Note [TcLevel invariants]. Consider f :: (Eq a, _) => blah1 f = ....g... g :: (Eq b, _) => blah2 g = ...f... Then we have two psig_theta constraints (Eq a[tv], Eq b[tv]), both with TyVarTvs inside. Ultimately a[tv] := b[tv], but only when we've solved all those constraints. And both have level 1, so we can't put them as Givens when solving at level 1. Best to treat them as Wanteds. But see also #20076, which would be solved if they were Givens. ************************************************************************ * * Quantification * * ************************************************************************ Note [Deciding quantification] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ If the monomorphism restriction does not apply, then we quantify as follows: * Step 1: decideMonoTyVars. Take the global tyvars, and "grow" them using functional dependencies E.g. if x:alpha is in the environment, and alpha ~ [beta] (which can happen because alpha is untouchable here) then do not quantify over beta, because alpha fixes beta, and beta is effectively free in the environment too; this logic extends to general fundeps, not just equalities We also account for the monomorphism restriction; if it applies, add the free vars of all the constraints. Result is mono_tvs; we will not quantify over these. * Step 2: defaultTyVarsAndSimplify. Default any non-mono tyvars (i.e ones that are definitely not going to become further constrained), and re-simplify the candidate constraints. Motivation for re-simplification (#7857): imagine we have a constraint (C (a->b)), where 'a :: TYPE l1' and 'b :: TYPE l2' are not free in the envt, and instance forall (a::*) (b::*). (C a) => C (a -> b) The instance doesn't match while l1,l2 are polymorphic, but it will match when we default them to LiftedRep. This is all very tiresome. This step also promotes the mono_tvs from Step 1. See Note [Promote monomorphic tyvars]. In fact, the *only* use of the mono_tvs from Step 1 is to promote them here. This promotion effectively stops us from quantifying over them later, in Step 3. Because the actual variables to quantify over are determined in Step 3 (not in Step 1), it is OK for the mono_tvs to be missing some variables free in the environment. This is why removing the psig_qtvs is OK in decideMonoTyVars. Test case for this scenario: T14479. * Step 3: decideQuantifiedTyVars. Decide which variables to quantify over, as follows: - Take the free vars of the partial-type-signature types and constraints, and the tau-type (zonked_tau_tvs), and then "grow" them using all the constraints. These are grown_tcvs. See Note [growThetaTyVars vs closeWrtFunDeps]. - Use quantifyTyVars to quantify over the free variables of all the types involved, but only those in the grown_tcvs. Result is qtvs. * Step 4: Filter the constraints using pickQuantifiablePreds and the qtvs. We have to zonk the constraints first, so they "see" the freshly created skolems. Note [Lift equality constraints when quantifying] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ We can't quantify over a constraint (t1 ~# t2) because that isn't a predicate type; see Note [Types for coercions, predicates, and evidence] in GHC.Core.TyCo.Rep. So we have to 'lift' it to (t1 ~ t2). Similarly (~R#) must be lifted to Coercible. This tiresome lifting is the reason that pick_me (in pickQuantifiablePreds) returns a Maybe rather than a Bool. Note [Inheriting implicit parameters] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Consider this: f x = (x::Int) + ?y where f is *not* a top-level binding. From the RHS of f we'll get the constraint (?y::Int). There are two types we might infer for f: f :: Int -> Int (so we get ?y from the context of f's definition), or f :: (?y::Int) => Int -> Int At first you might think the first was better, because then ?y behaves like a free variable of the definition, rather than having to be passed at each call site. But of course, the WHOLE IDEA is that ?y should be passed at each call site (that's what dynamic binding means) so we'd better infer the second. BOTTOM LINE: when *inferring types* you must quantify over implicit parameters, *even if* they don't mention the bound type variables. Reason: because implicit parameters, uniquely, have local instance declarations. See pickQuantifiablePreds. Note [Quantifying over equality constraints] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Should we quantify over an equality constraint (s ~ t)? In general, we don't. Doing so may simply postpone a type error from the function definition site to its call site. (At worst, imagine (Int ~ Bool)). However, consider this forall a. (F [a] ~ Int) => blah Should we quantify over the (F [a] ~ Int). Perhaps yes, because at the call site we will know 'a', and perhaps we have instance F [Bool] = Int. So we *do* quantify over a type-family equality where the arguments mention the quantified variables. Note [Unconditionally resimplify constraints when quantifying] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ During quantification (in defaultTyVarsAndSimplify, specifically), we re-invoke the solver to simplify the constraints before quantifying them. We do this for two reasons, enumerated below. We could, in theory, detect when either of these cases apply and simplify only then, but collecting this information is bothersome, and simplifying redundantly causes no real harm. Note that this code path happens only for definitions * without a type signature * when -XMonoLocalBinds does not apply * with unsolved constraints and so the performance cost will be small. 1. Defaulting Defaulting the variables handled by defaultTyVar may unlock instance simplifications. Example (typecheck/should_compile/T20584b): with (t :: Double) (u :: String) = printf "..." t u We know the types of t and u, but we do not know the return type of `with`. So, we assume `with :: alpha`, where `alpha :: TYPE rho`. The type of printf is printf :: PrintfType r => String -> r The occurrence of printf is instantiated with a fresh var beta. We then get beta := Double -> String -> alpha and [W] PrintfType (Double -> String -> alpha) Module Text.Printf exports instance (PrintfArg a, PrintfType r) => PrintfType (a -> r) and it looks like that instance should apply. But I have elided some key details: (->) is polymorphic over multiplicity and runtime representation. Here it is in full glory: [W] PrintfType ((Double :: Type) %m1 -> (String :: Type) %m2 -> (alpha :: TYPE rho)) instance (PrintfArg a, PrintfType r) => PrintfType ((a :: Type) %Many -> (r :: Type)) Because we do not know that m1 is Many, we cannot use the instance. (Perhaps a better instance would have an explicit equality constraint to the left of =>, but that's not what we have.) Then, in defaultTyVarsAndSimplify, we get m1 := Many, m2 := Many, and rho := LiftedRep. Yet it's too late to simplify the quantified constraint, and thus GHC infers wait :: PrintfType (Double -> String -> t) => Double -> String -> t which is silly. Simplifying again after defaulting solves this problem. 2. Interacting functional dependencies Suppose we have class C a b | a -> b and we are running simplifyInfer over forall[2] x. () => [W] C a beta1[1] forall[2] y. () => [W] C a beta2[1] These are two implication constraints, both of which contain a wanted for the class C. Neither constraint mentions the bound skolem. We might imagine that these constraint could thus float out of their implications and then interact, causing beta1 to unify with beta2, but constraints do not currently float out of implications. Unifying the beta1 and beta2 is important. Without doing so, then we might infer a type like (C a b1, C a b2) => a -> a, which will fail to pass the ambiguity check, which will say (rightly) that it cannot unify b1 with b2, as required by the fundep interactions. This happens in the parsec library, and in test case typecheck/should_compile/FloatFDs. If we re-simplify, however, the two fundep constraints will interact, causing a unification between beta1 and beta2, and all will be well. The key step is that this simplification happens *after* the call to approximateWC in simplifyInfer. Note [Do not quantify over constraints that determine a variable] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Consider (typecheck/should_compile/tc231), where we're trying to infer the type of a top-level declaration. We have class Zork s a b | a -> b and the candidate constraint at the end of simplifyInfer is [W] Zork alpha (Z [Char]) beta We definitely do want to quantify over alpha (which is mentioned in the tau-type). But we do *not* want to quantify over beta: it is determined by the functional dependency on Zork: note that the second argument to Zork in the Wanted is a variable-free Z [Char]. The question here: do we want to quantify over the constraint? Definitely not. Since we're not quantifying over beta, GHC has no choice but to zap beta to Any, and then we infer a type involving (Zork a (Z [Char]) Any => ...). No no no. The no_fixed_dependencies check in pickQuantifiablePreds eliminates this candidate from the pool. Because there are no Zork instances in scope, this program is rejected. -} decideQuantification :: SkolemInfo -> InferMode -> TcLevel -> [(Name, TcTauType)] -- Variables to be generalised -> [TcIdSigInst] -- Partial type signatures (if any) -> [PredType] -- Candidate theta; already zonked -> TcM ( [TcTyVar] -- Quantify over these (skolems) , [PredType] -- and this context (fully zonked) , CoVarSet) -- See Note [Deciding quantification] decideQuantification :: SkolemInfo -> InferMode -> TcLevel -> [(Name, Type)] -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [Type] -> TcM ([TcTyVar], [Type], VarSet) decideQuantification SkolemInfo skol_info InferMode infer_mode TcLevel rhs_tclvl [(Name, Type)] name_taus [TcIdSigInst] psigs [Type] candidates = do { -- Step 1: find the mono_tvs ; (VarSet mono_tvs, [Type] candidates, VarSet co_vars) <- InferMode -> [(Name, Type)] -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [Type] -> TcM (VarSet, [Type], VarSet) decideMonoTyVars InferMode infer_mode [(Name, Type)] name_taus [TcIdSigInst] psigs [Type] candidates -- Step 2: default any non-mono tyvars, and re-simplify -- This step may do some unification, but result candidates is zonked ; [Type] candidates <- TcLevel -> VarSet -> [Type] -> TcM [Type] defaultTyVarsAndSimplify TcLevel rhs_tclvl VarSet mono_tvs [Type] candidates -- Step 3: decide which kind/type variables to quantify over ; [TcTyVar] qtvs <- SkolemInfo -> [(Name, Type)] -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [Type] -> TcM [TcTyVar] decideQuantifiedTyVars SkolemInfo skol_info [(Name, Type)] name_taus [TcIdSigInst] psigs [Type] candidates -- Step 4: choose which of the remaining candidate -- predicates to actually quantify over -- NB: decideQuantifiedTyVars turned some meta tyvars -- into quantified skolems, so we have to zonk again ; [Type] candidates <- [Type] -> TcM [Type] TcM.zonkTcTypes [Type] candidates ; [Type] psig_theta <- [Type] -> TcM [Type] TcM.zonkTcTypes ((TcIdSigInst -> [Type]) -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [Type] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b] concatMap TcIdSigInst -> [Type] sig_inst_theta [TcIdSigInst] psigs) ; let min_theta :: [Type] min_theta = (Type -> Type) -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. (a -> Type) -> [a] -> [a] mkMinimalBySCs Type -> Type forall a. a -> a id ([Type] -> [Type]) -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ -- See Note [Minimize by Superclasses] VarSet -> [Type] -> [Type] pickQuantifiablePreds ([TcTyVar] -> VarSet mkVarSet [TcTyVar] qtvs) [Type] candidates min_psig_theta :: [Type] min_psig_theta = (Type -> Type) -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. (a -> Type) -> [a] -> [a] mkMinimalBySCs Type -> Type forall a. a -> a id [Type] psig_theta -- Add psig_theta back in here, even though it's already -- part of candidates, because we always want to quantify over -- psig_theta, and pickQuantifiableCandidates might have -- dropped some e.g. CallStack constraints. c.f #14658 -- equalities (a ~ Bool) -- It's helpful to use the same "find difference" algorithm here as -- we use in GHC.Tc.Gen.Bind.chooseInferredQuantifiers (#20921) -- See Note [Constraints in partial type signatures] ; [Type] theta <- if [Type] -> Bool forall a. [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [Type] psig_theta then [Type] -> TcM [Type] forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return [Type] min_theta -- Fast path for the non-partial-sig case else do { [Type] diff <- [Type] -> [Type] -> TcM [Type] findInferredDiff [Type] min_psig_theta [Type] min_theta ; [Type] -> TcM [Type] forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return ([Type] min_psig_theta [Type] -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [Type] diff) } ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "decideQuantification" ([SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "infer_mode:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> InferMode -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr InferMode infer_mode , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "candidates:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] candidates , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "psig_theta:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] psig_theta , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "mono_tvs:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> VarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr VarSet mono_tvs , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "co_vars:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> VarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr VarSet co_vars , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "qtvs:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [TcTyVar] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [TcTyVar] qtvs , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "theta:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] theta ]) ; ([TcTyVar], [Type], VarSet) -> TcM ([TcTyVar], [Type], VarSet) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return ([TcTyVar] qtvs, [Type] theta, VarSet co_vars) } {- Note [Constraints in partial type signatures] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Suppose we have a partial type signature f :: (Eq a, C a, _) => blah We will ultimately quantify f over (Eq a, C a, <diff>), where * <diff> is the result of findInferredDiff (Eq a, C a) <quant-theta> in GHC.Tc.Gen.Bind.chooseInferredQuantifiers * <quant-theta> is the theta returned right here, by decideQuantification At least for single functions we would like to quantify f over precisely the same theta as <quant-theta>, so that we get to take the short-cut path in GHC.Tc.Gen.Bind.mkExport, and avoid calling tcSubTypeSigma for impedance matching. Why avoid? Because it falls over for ambiguous types (#20921). We can get precisely the same theta by using the same algorithm, findInferredDiff. All of this goes wrong if we have (a) mutual recursion, (b) multiple partial type signatures, (c) with different constraints, and (d) ambiguous types. Something like f :: forall a. Eq a => F a -> _ f x = (undefined :: a) == g x undefined g :: forall b. Show b => F b -> _ -> b g x y = let _ = (f y, show x) in x But that's a battle for another day. -} decideMonoTyVars :: InferMode -> [(Name,TcType)] -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [PredType] -> TcM (TcTyCoVarSet, [PredType], CoVarSet) -- Decide which tyvars and covars cannot be generalised: -- (a) Free in the environment -- (b) Mentioned in a constraint we can't generalise -- (c) Connected by an equality or fundep to (a) or (b) -- Also return CoVars that appear free in the final quantified types -- we can't quantify over these, and we must make sure they are in scope decideMonoTyVars :: InferMode -> [(Name, Type)] -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [Type] -> TcM (VarSet, [Type], VarSet) decideMonoTyVars InferMode infer_mode [(Name, Type)] name_taus [TcIdSigInst] psigs [Type] candidates = do { ([Type] no_quant, [Type] maybe_quant) <- InferMode -> [Type] -> TcM ([Type], [Type]) pick InferMode infer_mode [Type] candidates -- If possible, we quantify over partial-sig qtvs, so they are -- not mono. Need to zonk them because they are meta-tyvar TyVarTvs ; [TcTyVar] psig_qtvs <- [TcTyVar] -> TcM [TcTyVar] (() :: Constraint) => [TcTyVar] -> TcM [TcTyVar] zonkTcTyVarsToTcTyVars ([TcTyVar] -> TcM [TcTyVar]) -> [TcTyVar] -> TcM [TcTyVar] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [InvisTVBinder] -> [TcTyVar] forall tv argf. [VarBndr tv argf] -> [tv] binderVars ([InvisTVBinder] -> [TcTyVar]) -> [InvisTVBinder] -> [TcTyVar] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ (TcIdSigInst -> [InvisTVBinder]) -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [InvisTVBinder] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b] concatMap (((Name, InvisTVBinder) -> InvisTVBinder) -> [(Name, InvisTVBinder)] -> [InvisTVBinder] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (Name, InvisTVBinder) -> InvisTVBinder forall a b. (a, b) -> b snd ([(Name, InvisTVBinder)] -> [InvisTVBinder]) -> (TcIdSigInst -> [(Name, InvisTVBinder)]) -> TcIdSigInst -> [InvisTVBinder] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . TcIdSigInst -> [(Name, InvisTVBinder)] sig_inst_skols) [TcIdSigInst] psigs ; [Type] psig_theta <- (Type -> TcM Type) -> [Type] -> TcM [Type] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> [a] -> m [b] mapM Type -> TcM Type TcM.zonkTcType ([Type] -> TcM [Type]) -> [Type] -> TcM [Type] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ (TcIdSigInst -> [Type]) -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [Type] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b] concatMap TcIdSigInst -> [Type] sig_inst_theta [TcIdSigInst] psigs ; [Type] taus <- ((Name, Type) -> TcM Type) -> [(Name, Type)] -> TcM [Type] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> [a] -> m [b] mapM (Type -> TcM Type TcM.zonkTcType (Type -> TcM Type) -> ((Name, Type) -> Type) -> (Name, Type) -> TcM Type forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (Name, Type) -> Type forall a b. (a, b) -> b snd) [(Name, Type)] name_taus ; TcLevel tc_lvl <- TcM TcLevel TcM.getTcLevel ; let psig_tys :: [Type] psig_tys = [TcTyVar] -> [Type] mkTyVarTys [TcTyVar] psig_qtvs [Type] -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [Type] psig_theta co_vars :: VarSet co_vars = [Type] -> VarSet coVarsOfTypes ([Type] psig_tys [Type] -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [Type] taus [Type] -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [Type] candidates) co_var_tvs :: VarSet co_var_tvs = VarSet -> VarSet closeOverKinds VarSet co_vars -- The co_var_tvs are tvs mentioned in the types of covars or -- coercion holes. We can't quantify over these covars, so we -- must include the variable in their types in the mono_tvs. -- E.g. If we can't quantify over co :: k~Type, then we can't -- quantify over k either! Hence closeOverKinds mono_tvs0 :: VarSet mono_tvs0 = (TcTyVar -> Bool) -> VarSet -> VarSet filterVarSet (Bool -> Bool not (Bool -> Bool) -> (TcTyVar -> Bool) -> TcTyVar -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . TcLevel -> TcTyVar -> Bool isQuantifiableTv TcLevel tc_lvl) (VarSet -> VarSet) -> VarSet -> VarSet forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [Type] -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfTypes [Type] candidates -- We need to grab all the non-quantifiable tyvars in the -- types so that we can grow this set to find other -- non-quantifiable tyvars. This can happen with something -- like -- f x y = ... -- where z = x 3 -- The body of z tries to unify the type of x (call it alpha[1]) -- with (beta[2] -> gamma[2]). This unification fails because -- alpha is untouchable. But we need to know not to quantify over -- beta or gamma, because they are in the equality constraint with -- alpha. Actual test case: typecheck/should_compile/tc213 mono_tvs1 :: VarSet mono_tvs1 = VarSet mono_tvs0 VarSet -> VarSet -> VarSet `unionVarSet` VarSet co_var_tvs -- mono_tvs1 is now the set of variables from an outer scope -- (that's mono_tvs0) and the set of covars, closed over kinds. -- Given this set of variables we know we will not quantify, -- we want to find any other variables that are determined by this -- set, by functional dependencies or equalities. We thus use -- closeWrtFunDeps to find all further variables determined by this root -- set. See Note [growThetaTyVars vs closeWrtFunDeps] non_ip_candidates :: [Type] non_ip_candidates = (Type -> Bool) -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] filterOut Type -> Bool isIPLikePred [Type] candidates -- implicit params don't really determine a type variable -- (that is, we might have IP "c" Bool and IP "c" Int in different -- places within the same program), and -- skipping this causes implicit params to monomorphise too many -- variables; see Note [Inheriting implicit parameters] in -- GHC.Tc.Solver. Skipping causes typecheck/should_compile/tc219 -- to fail. mono_tvs2 :: VarSet mono_tvs2 = [Type] -> VarSet -> VarSet closeWrtFunDeps [Type] non_ip_candidates VarSet mono_tvs1 -- mono_tvs2 now contains any variable determined by the "root -- set" of monomorphic tyvars in mono_tvs1. constrained_tvs :: VarSet constrained_tvs = (TcTyVar -> Bool) -> VarSet -> VarSet filterVarSet (TcLevel -> TcTyVar -> Bool isQuantifiableTv TcLevel tc_lvl) (VarSet -> VarSet) -> VarSet -> VarSet forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [Type] -> VarSet -> VarSet closeWrtFunDeps [Type] non_ip_candidates ([Type] -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfTypes [Type] no_quant) VarSet -> VarSet -> VarSet `minusVarSet` VarSet mono_tvs2 -- constrained_tvs: the tyvars that we are not going to -- quantify solely because of the monomorphism restriction -- -- (`minusVarSet` mono_tvs2): a type variable is only -- "constrained" (so that the MR bites) if it is not -- free in the environment (#13785) or is determined -- by some variable that is free in the env't mono_tvs :: VarSet mono_tvs = (VarSet mono_tvs2 VarSet -> VarSet -> VarSet `unionVarSet` VarSet constrained_tvs) VarSet -> [TcTyVar] -> VarSet `delVarSetList` [TcTyVar] psig_qtvs -- (`delVarSetList` psig_qtvs): if the user has explicitly -- asked for quantification, then that request "wins" -- over the MR. -- -- What if a psig variable is also free in the environment -- (i.e. says "no" to isQuantifiableTv)? That's OK: explanation -- in Step 2 of Note [Deciding quantification]. -- Warn about the monomorphism restriction ; Bool -> TcM () -> TcM () forall (f :: * -> *). Applicative f => Bool -> f () -> f () when (case InferMode infer_mode of { InferMode ApplyMR -> Bool True; InferMode _ -> Bool False}) (TcM () -> TcM ()) -> TcM () -> TcM () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do let dia :: TcRnMessage dia = [Name] -> TcRnMessage TcRnMonomorphicBindings (((Name, Type) -> Name) -> [(Name, Type)] -> [Name] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (Name, Type) -> Name forall a b. (a, b) -> a fst [(Name, Type)] name_taus) Bool -> TcRnMessage -> TcM () diagnosticTc (VarSet constrained_tvs VarSet -> VarSet -> Bool `intersectsVarSet` [Type] -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfTypes [Type] taus) TcRnMessage dia ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "decideMonoTyVars" (SDoc -> TcM ()) -> SDoc -> TcM () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "infer_mode =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> InferMode -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr InferMode infer_mode , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "mono_tvs0 =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> VarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr VarSet mono_tvs0 , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "no_quant =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] no_quant , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "maybe_quant =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] maybe_quant , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "mono_tvs =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> VarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr VarSet mono_tvs , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "co_vars =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> VarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr VarSet co_vars ] ; (VarSet, [Type], VarSet) -> TcM (VarSet, [Type], VarSet) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (VarSet mono_tvs, [Type] maybe_quant, VarSet co_vars) } where pick :: InferMode -> [PredType] -> TcM ([PredType], [PredType]) -- Split the candidates into ones we definitely -- won't quantify, and ones that we might pick :: InferMode -> [Type] -> TcM ([Type], [Type]) pick InferMode NoRestrictions [Type] cand = ([Type], [Type]) -> TcM ([Type], [Type]) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return ([], [Type] cand) pick InferMode ApplyMR [Type] cand = ([Type], [Type]) -> TcM ([Type], [Type]) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return ([Type] cand, []) pick InferMode EagerDefaulting [Type] cand = do { Bool os <- Extension -> TcM Bool forall gbl lcl. Extension -> TcRnIf gbl lcl Bool xoptM Extension LangExt.OverloadedStrings ; ([Type], [Type]) -> TcM ([Type], [Type]) forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return ((Type -> Bool) -> [Type] -> ([Type], [Type]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) partition (Bool -> Type -> Bool is_int_ct Bool os) [Type] cand) } -- For EagerDefaulting, do not quantify over -- over any interactive class constraint is_int_ct :: Bool -> Type -> Bool is_int_ct Bool ovl_strings Type pred | Just (Class cls, [Type] _) <- Type -> Maybe (Class, [Type]) getClassPredTys_maybe Type pred = Bool -> Class -> Bool isInteractiveClass Bool ovl_strings Class cls | Bool otherwise = Bool False ------------------- defaultTyVarsAndSimplify :: TcLevel -> TyCoVarSet -- Promote these mono-tyvars -> [PredType] -- Assumed zonked -> TcM [PredType] -- Guaranteed zonked -- Promote the known-monomorphic tyvars; -- Default any tyvar free in the constraints; -- and re-simplify in case the defaulting allows further simplification defaultTyVarsAndSimplify :: TcLevel -> VarSet -> [Type] -> TcM [Type] defaultTyVarsAndSimplify TcLevel rhs_tclvl VarSet mono_tvs [Type] candidates = do { -- Promote any tyvars that we cannot generalise -- See Note [Promote monomorphic tyvars] ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "decideMonoTyVars: promotion:" (VarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr VarSet mono_tvs) ; Bool _ <- VarSet -> TcM Bool promoteTyVarSet VarSet mono_tvs -- Default any kind/levity vars ; DV {dv_kvs :: CandidatesQTvs -> DTyVarSet dv_kvs = DTyVarSet cand_kvs, dv_tvs :: CandidatesQTvs -> DTyVarSet dv_tvs = DTyVarSet cand_tvs} <- [Type] -> TcM CandidatesQTvs candidateQTyVarsOfTypes [Type] candidates -- any covars should already be handled by -- the logic in decideMonoTyVars, which looks at -- the constraints generated ; Bool poly_kinds <- Extension -> TcM Bool forall gbl lcl. Extension -> TcRnIf gbl lcl Bool xoptM Extension LangExt.PolyKinds ; (TcTyVar -> TcM ()) -> [TcTyVar] -> TcM () forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Foldable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m () mapM_ (Bool -> Bool -> TcTyVar -> TcM () default_one Bool poly_kinds Bool True) (DTyVarSet -> [TcTyVar] dVarSetElems DTyVarSet cand_kvs) ; (TcTyVar -> TcM ()) -> [TcTyVar] -> TcM () forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Foldable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m () mapM_ (Bool -> Bool -> TcTyVar -> TcM () default_one Bool poly_kinds Bool False) (DTyVarSet -> [TcTyVar] dVarSetElems (DTyVarSet cand_tvs DTyVarSet -> DTyVarSet -> DTyVarSet `minusDVarSet` DTyVarSet cand_kvs)) ; [Type] -> TcM [Type] simplify_cand [Type] candidates } where default_one :: Bool -> Bool -> TcTyVar -> TcM () default_one Bool poly_kinds Bool is_kind_var TcTyVar tv | Bool -> Bool not (TcTyVar -> Bool isMetaTyVar TcTyVar tv) = () -> TcM () forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return () | TcTyVar tv TcTyVar -> VarSet -> Bool `elemVarSet` VarSet mono_tvs = () -> TcM () forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return () | Bool otherwise = TcM Bool -> TcM () forall (f :: * -> *) a. Functor f => f a -> f () void (TcM Bool -> TcM ()) -> TcM Bool -> TcM () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ DefaultingStrategy -> TcTyVar -> TcM Bool defaultTyVar (if Bool -> Bool not Bool poly_kinds Bool -> Bool -> Bool && Bool is_kind_var then DefaultingStrategy DefaultKindVars else NonStandardDefaultingStrategy -> DefaultingStrategy NonStandardDefaulting NonStandardDefaultingStrategy DefaultNonStandardTyVars) -- NB: only pass 'DefaultKindVars' when we know we're dealing with a kind variable. TcTyVar tv -- this common case (no inferred constraints) should be fast simplify_cand :: [Type] -> TcM [Type] simplify_cand [] = [Type] -> TcM [Type] forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return [] -- see Note [Unconditionally resimplify constraints when quantifying] simplify_cand [Type] candidates = do { [CtEvidence] clone_wanteds <- CtOrigin -> [Type] -> TcM [CtEvidence] newWanteds CtOrigin DefaultOrigin [Type] candidates ; WC { wc_simple :: WantedConstraints -> Cts wc_simple = Cts simples } <- TcLevel -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints forall a. TcLevel -> TcM a -> TcM a setTcLevel TcLevel rhs_tclvl (TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints) -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [CtEvidence] -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints simplifyWantedsTcM [CtEvidence] clone_wanteds -- Discard evidence; simples is fully zonked ; let new_candidates :: [Type] new_candidates = Cts -> [Type] ctsPreds Cts simples ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "Simplified after defaulting" (SDoc -> TcM ()) -> SDoc -> TcM () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "Before:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] candidates , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "After:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] new_candidates ] ; [Type] -> TcM [Type] forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return [Type] new_candidates } ------------------ decideQuantifiedTyVars :: SkolemInfo -> [(Name,TcType)] -- Annotated theta and (name,tau) pairs -> [TcIdSigInst] -- Partial signatures -> [PredType] -- Candidates, zonked -> TcM [TyVar] -- Fix what tyvars we are going to quantify over, and quantify them decideQuantifiedTyVars :: SkolemInfo -> [(Name, Type)] -> [TcIdSigInst] -> [Type] -> TcM [TcTyVar] decideQuantifiedTyVars SkolemInfo skol_info [(Name, Type)] name_taus [TcIdSigInst] psigs [Type] candidates = do { -- Why psig_tys? We try to quantify over everything free in here -- See Note [Quantification and partial signatures] -- Wrinkles 2 and 3 ; [Type] psig_tv_tys <- (TcTyVar -> TcM Type) -> [TcTyVar] -> TcM [Type] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> [a] -> m [b] mapM TcTyVar -> TcM Type TcM.zonkTcTyVar [ TcTyVar tv | TcIdSigInst sig <- [TcIdSigInst] psigs , (Name _,Bndr TcTyVar tv Specificity _) <- TcIdSigInst -> [(Name, InvisTVBinder)] sig_inst_skols TcIdSigInst sig ] ; [Type] psig_theta <- (Type -> TcM Type) -> [Type] -> TcM [Type] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> [a] -> m [b] mapM Type -> TcM Type TcM.zonkTcType [ Type pred | TcIdSigInst sig <- [TcIdSigInst] psigs , Type pred <- TcIdSigInst -> [Type] sig_inst_theta TcIdSigInst sig ] ; [Type] tau_tys <- ((Name, Type) -> TcM Type) -> [(Name, Type)] -> TcM [Type] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> [a] -> m [b] mapM (Type -> TcM Type TcM.zonkTcType (Type -> TcM Type) -> ((Name, Type) -> Type) -> (Name, Type) -> TcM Type forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (Name, Type) -> Type forall a b. (a, b) -> b snd) [(Name, Type)] name_taus ; let -- Try to quantify over variables free in these types psig_tys :: [Type] psig_tys = [Type] psig_tv_tys [Type] -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [Type] psig_theta seed_tys :: [Type] seed_tys = [Type] psig_tys [Type] -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [Type] tau_tys -- Now "grow" those seeds to find ones reachable via 'candidates' -- See Note [growThetaTyVars vs closeWrtFunDeps] grown_tcvs :: VarSet grown_tcvs = [Type] -> VarSet -> VarSet growThetaTyVars [Type] candidates ([Type] -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfTypes [Type] seed_tys) -- Now we have to classify them into kind variables and type variables -- (sigh) just for the benefit of -XNoPolyKinds; see quantifyTyVars -- -- Keep the psig_tys first, so that candidateQTyVarsOfTypes produces -- them in that order, so that the final qtvs quantifies in the same -- order as the partial signatures do (#13524) ; dv :: CandidatesQTvs dv@DV {dv_kvs :: CandidatesQTvs -> DTyVarSet dv_kvs = DTyVarSet cand_kvs, dv_tvs :: CandidatesQTvs -> DTyVarSet dv_tvs = DTyVarSet cand_tvs} <- [Type] -> TcM CandidatesQTvs candidateQTyVarsOfTypes ([Type] -> TcM CandidatesQTvs) -> [Type] -> TcM CandidatesQTvs forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [Type] psig_tys [Type] -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [Type] candidates [Type] -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [Type] tau_tys ; let pick :: DTyVarSet -> DTyVarSet pick = (DTyVarSet -> VarSet -> DTyVarSet `dVarSetIntersectVarSet` VarSet grown_tcvs) dvs_plus :: CandidatesQTvs dvs_plus = CandidatesQTvs dv { dv_kvs = pick cand_kvs, dv_tvs = pick cand_tvs } ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "decideQuantifiedTyVars" ([SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "tau_tys =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] tau_tys , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "candidates =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] candidates , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "cand_kvs =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> DTyVarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr DTyVarSet cand_kvs , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "cand_tvs =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> DTyVarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr DTyVarSet cand_tvs , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "tau_tys =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] tau_tys , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "seed_tys =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [Type] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Type] seed_tys , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "seed_tcvs =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> VarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr ([Type] -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfTypes [Type] seed_tys) , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "grown_tcvs =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> VarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr VarSet grown_tcvs , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "dvs =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> CandidatesQTvs -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr CandidatesQTvs dvs_plus]) ; SkolemInfo -> NonStandardDefaultingStrategy -> CandidatesQTvs -> TcM [TcTyVar] quantifyTyVars SkolemInfo skol_info NonStandardDefaultingStrategy DefaultNonStandardTyVars CandidatesQTvs dvs_plus } ------------------ -- | When inferring types, should we quantify over a given predicate? -- Generally true of classes; generally false of equality constraints. -- Equality constraints that mention quantified type variables and -- implicit variables complicate the story. See Notes -- [Inheriting implicit parameters] and [Quantifying over equality constraints] pickQuantifiablePreds :: TyVarSet -- Quantifying over these -> TcThetaType -- Proposed constraints to quantify -> TcThetaType -- A subset that we can actually quantify -- This function decides whether a particular constraint should be -- quantified over, given the type variables that are being quantified pickQuantifiablePreds :: VarSet -> [Type] -> [Type] pickQuantifiablePreds VarSet qtvs [Type] theta = let flex_ctxt :: Bool flex_ctxt = Bool True in -- Quantify over non-tyvar constraints, even without -- -XFlexibleContexts: see #10608, #10351 -- flex_ctxt <- xoptM Opt_FlexibleContexts (Type -> Maybe Type) -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a b. (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> [b] mapMaybe (Bool -> Type -> Maybe Type pick_me Bool flex_ctxt) [Type] theta where pick_me :: Bool -> Type -> Maybe Type pick_me Bool flex_ctxt Type pred = case Type -> Pred classifyPredType Type pred of ClassPred Class cls [Type] tys | Just {} <- Class -> [Type] -> Maybe FastString isCallStackPred Class cls [Type] tys -- NEVER infer a CallStack constraint. Otherwise we let -- the constraints bubble up to be solved from the outer -- context, or be defaulted when we reach the top-level. -- See Note [Overview of implicit CallStacks] in GHC.Tc.Types.Evidence -> Maybe Type forall a. Maybe a Nothing | Class -> Bool isIPClass Class cls -> Type -> Maybe Type forall a. a -> Maybe a Just Type pred -- See Note [Inheriting implicit parameters] | Bool -> Class -> [Type] -> Bool pick_cls_pred Bool flex_ctxt Class cls [Type] tys -> Type -> Maybe Type forall a. a -> Maybe a Just Type pred EqPred EqRel eq_rel Type ty1 Type ty2 | EqRel -> Type -> Type -> Bool quantify_equality EqRel eq_rel Type ty1 Type ty2 , Just (Class cls, [Type] tys) <- EqRel -> Type -> Type -> Maybe (Class, [Type]) boxEqPred EqRel eq_rel Type ty1 Type ty2 -- boxEqPred: See Note [Lift equality constraints when quantifying] , Bool -> Class -> [Type] -> Bool pick_cls_pred Bool flex_ctxt Class cls [Type] tys -> Type -> Maybe Type forall a. a -> Maybe a Just (Class -> [Type] -> Type mkClassPred Class cls [Type] tys) IrredPred Type ty | Type -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfType Type ty VarSet -> VarSet -> Bool `intersectsVarSet` VarSet qtvs -> Type -> Maybe Type forall a. a -> Maybe a Just Type pred Pred _ -> Maybe Type forall a. Maybe a Nothing pick_cls_pred :: Bool -> Class -> [Type] -> Bool pick_cls_pred Bool flex_ctxt Class cls [Type] tys = [Type] -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfTypes [Type] tys VarSet -> VarSet -> Bool `intersectsVarSet` VarSet qtvs Bool -> Bool -> Bool && (Bool -> Class -> [Type] -> Bool checkValidClsArgs Bool flex_ctxt Class cls [Type] tys) -- Only quantify over predicates that checkValidType -- will pass! See #10351. Bool -> Bool -> Bool && (Class -> [Type] -> Bool no_fixed_dependencies Class cls [Type] tys) -- See Note [Do not quantify over constraints that determine a variable] no_fixed_dependencies :: Class -> [Type] -> Bool no_fixed_dependencies Class cls [Type] tys = [Bool] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *). Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool and [ VarSet qtvs VarSet -> VarSet -> Bool `intersectsVarSet` [Type] -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfTypes [Type] fd_lhs_tys | FunDep TcTyVar fd <- [FunDep TcTyVar] cls_fds , let ([Type] fd_lhs_tys, [Type] _) = FunDep TcTyVar -> [TcTyVar] -> [Type] -> ([Type], [Type]) instFD FunDep TcTyVar fd [TcTyVar] cls_tvs [Type] tys ] where ([TcTyVar] cls_tvs, [FunDep TcTyVar] cls_fds) = Class -> ([TcTyVar], [FunDep TcTyVar]) classTvsFds Class cls -- See Note [Quantifying over equality constraints] quantify_equality :: EqRel -> Type -> Type -> Bool quantify_equality EqRel NomEq Type ty1 Type ty2 = Type -> Bool quant_fun Type ty1 Bool -> Bool -> Bool || Type -> Bool quant_fun Type ty2 quantify_equality EqRel ReprEq Type _ Type _ = Bool True quant_fun :: Type -> Bool quant_fun Type ty = case HasCallStack => Type -> Maybe (TyCon, [Type]) Type -> Maybe (TyCon, [Type]) tcSplitTyConApp_maybe Type ty of Just (TyCon tc, [Type] tys) | TyCon -> Bool isTypeFamilyTyCon TyCon tc -> [Type] -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfTypes [Type] tys VarSet -> VarSet -> Bool `intersectsVarSet` VarSet qtvs Maybe (TyCon, [Type]) _ -> Bool False ------------------ growThetaTyVars :: ThetaType -> TyCoVarSet -> TyCoVarSet -- See Note [growThetaTyVars vs closeWrtFunDeps] growThetaTyVars :: [Type] -> VarSet -> VarSet growThetaTyVars [Type] theta VarSet tcvs | [Type] -> Bool forall a. [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [Type] theta = VarSet tcvs | Bool otherwise = (VarSet -> VarSet) -> VarSet -> VarSet transCloVarSet VarSet -> VarSet mk_next VarSet seed_tcvs where seed_tcvs :: VarSet seed_tcvs = VarSet tcvs VarSet -> VarSet -> VarSet `unionVarSet` [Type] -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfTypes [Type] ips ([Type] ips, [Type] non_ips) = (Type -> Bool) -> [Type] -> ([Type], [Type]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) partition Type -> Bool isIPLikePred [Type] theta -- See Note [Inheriting implicit parameters] mk_next :: VarSet -> VarSet -- Maps current set to newly-grown ones mk_next :: VarSet -> VarSet mk_next VarSet so_far = (Type -> VarSet -> VarSet) -> VarSet -> [Type] -> VarSet forall a b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (VarSet -> Type -> VarSet -> VarSet grow_one VarSet so_far) VarSet emptyVarSet [Type] non_ips grow_one :: VarSet -> Type -> VarSet -> VarSet grow_one VarSet so_far Type pred VarSet tcvs | VarSet pred_tcvs VarSet -> VarSet -> Bool `intersectsVarSet` VarSet so_far = VarSet tcvs VarSet -> VarSet -> VarSet `unionVarSet` VarSet pred_tcvs | Bool otherwise = VarSet tcvs where pred_tcvs :: VarSet pred_tcvs = Type -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfType Type pred {- Note [Promote monomorphic tyvars] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Promote any type variables that are free in the environment. Eg f :: forall qtvs. bound_theta => zonked_tau The free vars of f's type become free in the envt, and hence will show up whenever 'f' is called. They may currently at rhs_tclvl, but they had better be unifiable at the outer_tclvl! Example: envt mentions alpha[1] tau_ty = beta[2] -> beta[2] constraints = alpha ~ [beta] we don't quantify over beta (since it is fixed by envt) so we must promote it! The inferred type is just f :: beta -> beta NB: promoteTyVarSet ignores coercion variables Note [Quantification and partial signatures] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When choosing type variables to quantify, the basic plan is to quantify over all type variables that are * free in the tau_tvs, and * not forced to be monomorphic (mono_tvs), for example by being free in the environment. However, in the case of a partial type signature, we are doing inference *in the presence of a type signature*. For example: f :: _ -> a f x = ... or g :: (Eq _a) => _b -> _b In both cases we use plan InferGen, and hence call simplifyInfer. But those 'a' variables are skolems (actually TyVarTvs), and we should be sure to quantify over them. This leads to several wrinkles: * Wrinkle 1. In the case of a type error f :: _ -> Maybe a f x = True && x The inferred type of 'f' is f :: Bool -> Bool, but there's a left-over error of form (Maybe a ~ Bool). The error-reporting machine expects to find a binding site for the skolem 'a', so we add it to the quantified tyvars. * Wrinkle 2. Consider the partial type signature f :: (Eq _) => Int -> Int f x = x In normal cases that makes sense; e.g. g :: Eq _a => _a -> _a g x = x where the signature makes the type less general than it could be. But for 'f' we must therefore quantify over the user-annotated constraints, to get f :: forall a. Eq a => Int -> Int (thereby correctly triggering an ambiguity error later). If we don't we'll end up with a strange open type f :: Eq alpha => Int -> Int which isn't ambiguous but is still very wrong. Bottom line: Try to quantify over any variable free in psig_theta, just like the tau-part of the type. * Wrinkle 3 (#13482). Also consider f :: forall a. _ => Int -> Int f x = if (undefined :: a) == undefined then x else 0 Here we get an (Eq a) constraint, but it's not mentioned in the psig_theta nor the type of 'f'. But we still want to quantify over 'a' even if the monomorphism restriction is on. * Wrinkle 4 (#14479) foo :: Num a => a -> a foo xxx = g xxx where g :: forall b. Num b => _ -> b g y = xxx + y In the signature for 'g', we cannot quantify over 'b' because it turns out to get unified with 'a', which is free in g's environment. So we carefully refrain from bogusly quantifying, in GHC.Tc.Solver.decideMonoTyVars. We report the error later, in GHC.Tc.Gen.Bind.chooseInferredQuantifiers. Note [growThetaTyVars vs closeWrtFunDeps] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ GHC has two functions, growThetaTyVars and closeWrtFunDeps, both with the same type and similar behavior. This Note outlines the differences and why we use one or the other. Both functions take a list of constraints. We will call these the *candidates*. closeWrtFunDeps takes a set of "determined" type variables and finds the closure of that set with respect to the functional dependencies within the class constraints in the set of candidates. So, if we have class C a b | a -> b class D a b -- no fundep candidates = {C (Maybe a) (Either b c), D (Maybe a) (Either d e)} then closeWrtFunDeps {a} will return the set {a,b,c}. This is because, if `a` is determined, then `b` and `c` are, too, by functional dependency. closeWrtFunDeps called with any seed set not including `a` will just return its argument, as only `a` determines any other type variable (in this example). growThetaTyVars operates similarly, but it behaves as if every constraint has a functional dependency among all its arguments. So, continuing our example, growThetaTyVars {a} will return {a,b,c,d,e}. Put another way, growThetaTyVars grows the set of variables to include all variables that are mentioned in the same constraint (transitively). We use closeWrtFunDeps in places where we need to know which variables are *always* determined by some seed set. This includes * when determining the mono-tyvars in decideMonoTyVars. If `a` is going to be monomorphic, we need b and c to be also: they are determined by the choice for `a`. * when checking instance coverage, in GHC.Tc.Instance.FunDeps.checkInstCoverage On the other hand, we use growThetaTyVars where we need to know which variables *might* be determined by some seed set. This includes * deciding quantification (GHC.Tc.Gen.Bind.chooseInferredQuantifiers and decideQuantifiedTyVars How can `a` determine (say) `d` in the example above without a fundep? Suppose we have instance (b ~ a, c ~ a) => D (Maybe [a]) (Either b c) Now, if `a` turns out to be a list, it really does determine b and c. The danger in overdoing quantification is the creation of an ambiguous type signature, but this is conveniently caught in the validity checker. Note [Quantification with errors] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ If we find that the RHS of the definition has some absolutely-insoluble constraints (including especially "variable not in scope"), we * Abandon all attempts to find a context to quantify over, and instead make the function fully-polymorphic in whatever type we have found * Return a flag from simplifyInfer, indicating that we found an insoluble constraint. This flag is used to suppress the ambiguity check for the inferred type, which may well be bogus, and which tends to obscure the real error. This fix feels a bit clunky, but I failed to come up with anything better. Reasons: - Avoid downstream errors - Do not perform an ambiguity test on a bogus type, which might well fail spuriously, thereby obfuscating the original insoluble error. #14000 is an example I tried an alternative approach: simply failM, after emitting the residual implication constraint; the exception will be caught in GHC.Tc.Gen.Bind.tcPolyBinds, which gives all the binders in the group the type (forall a. a). But that didn't work with -fdefer-type-errors, because the recovery from failM emits no code at all, so there is no function to run! But -fdefer-type-errors aspires to produce a runnable program. Note [Default while Inferring] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Our current plan is that defaulting only happens at simplifyTop and not simplifyInfer. This may lead to some insoluble deferred constraints. Example: instance D g => C g Int b constraint inferred = (forall b. 0 => C gamma alpha b) /\ Num alpha type inferred = gamma -> gamma Now, if we try to default (alpha := Int) we will be able to refine the implication to (forall b. 0 => C gamma Int b) which can then be simplified further to (forall b. 0 => D gamma) Finally, we /can/ approximate this implication with (D gamma) and infer the quantified type: forall g. D g => g -> g Instead what will currently happen is that we will get a quantified type (forall g. g -> g) and an implication: forall g. 0 => (forall b. 0 => C g alpha b) /\ Num alpha Which, even if the simplifyTop defaults (alpha := Int) we will still be left with an unsolvable implication: forall g. 0 => (forall b. 0 => D g) The concrete example would be: h :: C g a s => g -> a -> ST s a f (x::gamma) = (\_ -> x) (runST (h x (undefined::alpha)) + 1) But it is quite tedious to do defaulting and resolve the implication constraints, and we have not observed code breaking because of the lack of defaulting in inference, so we don't do it for now. Note [Minimize by Superclasses] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When we quantify over a constraint, in simplifyInfer we need to quantify over a constraint that is minimal in some sense: For instance, if the final wanted constraint is (Eq alpha, Ord alpha), we'd like to quantify over Ord alpha, because we can just get Eq alpha from superclass selection from Ord alpha. This minimization is what mkMinimalBySCs does. Then, simplifyInfer uses the minimal constraint to check the original wanted. Note [Avoid unnecessary constraint simplification] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -------- NB NB NB (Jun 12) ------------- This note not longer applies; see the notes with #4361. But I'm leaving it in here so we remember the issue.) ---------------------------------------- When inferring the type of a let-binding, with simplifyInfer, try to avoid unnecessarily simplifying class constraints. Doing so aids sharing, but it also helps with delicate situations like instance C t => C [t] where .. f :: C [t] => .... f x = let g y = ...(constraint C [t])... in ... When inferring a type for 'g', we don't want to apply the instance decl, because then we can't satisfy (C t). So we just notice that g isn't quantified over 't' and partition the constraints before simplifying. This only half-works, but then let-generalisation only half-works. ********************************************************************************* * * * Main Simplifier * * * *********************************************************************************** -} simplifyWantedsTcM :: [CtEvidence] -> TcM WantedConstraints -- Solve the specified Wanted constraints -- Discard the evidence binds -- Postcondition: fully zonked simplifyWantedsTcM :: [CtEvidence] -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints simplifyWantedsTcM [CtEvidence] wanted = do { String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "simplifyWantedsTcM {" ([CtEvidence] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [CtEvidence] wanted) ; (WantedConstraints result, EvBindMap _) <- TcS WantedConstraints -> TcM (WantedConstraints, EvBindMap) forall a. TcS a -> TcM (a, EvBindMap) runTcS (WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints solveWanteds ([CtEvidence] -> WantedConstraints mkSimpleWC [CtEvidence] wanted)) ; WantedConstraints result <- WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints TcM.zonkWC WantedConstraints result ; String -> SDoc -> TcM () traceTc String "simplifyWantedsTcM }" (WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints result) ; WantedConstraints -> TcRnIf TcGblEnv TcLclEnv WantedConstraints forall a. a -> IOEnv (Env TcGblEnv TcLclEnv) a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return WantedConstraints result } solveWanteds :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints solveWanteds :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints solveWanteds wc :: WantedConstraints wc@(WC { wc_errors :: WantedConstraints -> Bag DelayedError wc_errors = Bag DelayedError errs }) = do { TcLevel cur_lvl <- TcS TcLevel TcS.getTcLevel ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "solveWanteds {" (SDoc -> TcS ()) -> SDoc -> TcS () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "Level =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> TcLevel -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr TcLevel cur_lvl , WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints wc ] ; DynFlags dflags <- TcS DynFlags forall (m :: * -> *). HasDynFlags m => m DynFlags getDynFlags ; WantedConstraints solved_wc <- Int -> IntWithInf -> Bool -> WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints simplify_loop Int 0 (DynFlags -> IntWithInf solverIterations DynFlags dflags) Bool True WantedConstraints wc ; Bag DelayedError errs' <- Bag DelayedError -> TcS (Bag DelayedError) simplifyDelayedErrors Bag DelayedError errs ; let final_wc :: WantedConstraints final_wc = WantedConstraints solved_wc { wc_errors = errs' } ; EvBindsVar ev_binds_var <- TcS EvBindsVar getTcEvBindsVar ; EvBindMap bb <- EvBindsVar -> TcS EvBindMap TcS.getTcEvBindsMap EvBindsVar ev_binds_var ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "solveWanteds }" (SDoc -> TcS ()) -> SDoc -> TcS () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "final wc =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints final_wc , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "current evbinds =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Bag EvBind -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr (EvBindMap -> Bag EvBind evBindMapBinds EvBindMap bb) ] ; WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return WantedConstraints final_wc } simplify_loop :: Int -> IntWithInf -> Bool -> WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints -- Do a round of solving, and call maybe_simplify_again to iterate -- The 'definitely_redo_implications' flags is False if the only reason we -- are iterating is that we have added some new Wanted superclasses -- hoping for fundeps to help us; see Note [Superclass iteration] -- -- Does not affect wc_holes at all; reason: wc_holes never affects anything -- else, so we do them once, at the end in solveWanteds simplify_loop :: Int -> IntWithInf -> Bool -> WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints simplify_loop Int n IntWithInf limit Bool definitely_redo_implications wc :: WantedConstraints wc@(WC { wc_simple :: WantedConstraints -> Cts wc_simple = Cts simples, wc_impl :: WantedConstraints -> Bag Implication wc_impl = Bag Implication implics }) = do { SDoc -> TcS () csTraceTcS (SDoc -> TcS ()) -> SDoc -> TcS () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "simplify_loop iteration=" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <> Int -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => Int -> doc int Int n SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> (SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc parens (SDoc -> SDoc) -> SDoc -> SDoc forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => [doc] -> doc hsep [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "definitely_redo =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Bool -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Bool definitely_redo_implications SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc comma , Int -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => Int -> doc int (Cts -> Int forall a. Bag a -> Int lengthBag Cts simples) SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "simples to solve" ]) ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "simplify_loop: wc =" (WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints wc) ; (Int unifs1, WantedConstraints wc1) <- TcS WantedConstraints -> TcS (Int, WantedConstraints) forall a. TcS a -> TcS (Int, a) reportUnifications (TcS WantedConstraints -> TcS (Int, WantedConstraints)) -> TcS WantedConstraints -> TcS (Int, WantedConstraints) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ -- See Note [Superclass iteration] Cts -> TcS WantedConstraints solveSimpleWanteds Cts simples -- Any insoluble constraints are in 'simples' and so get rewritten -- See Note [Rewrite insolubles] in GHC.Tc.Solver.InertSet ; WantedConstraints wc2 <- if Bool -> Bool not Bool definitely_redo_implications -- See Note [Superclass iteration] Bool -> Bool -> Bool && Int unifs1 Int -> Int -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool == Int 0 -- for this conditional Bool -> Bool -> Bool && Bag Implication -> Bool forall a. Bag a -> Bool isEmptyBag (WantedConstraints -> Bag Implication wc_impl WantedConstraints wc1) then WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (WantedConstraints wc { wc_simple = wc_simple wc1 }) -- Short cut else do { Bag Implication implics2 <- Bag Implication -> TcS (Bag Implication) solveNestedImplications (Bag Implication -> TcS (Bag Implication)) -> Bag Implication -> TcS (Bag Implication) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ Bag Implication implics Bag Implication -> Bag Implication -> Bag Implication forall a. Bag a -> Bag a -> Bag a `unionBags` (WantedConstraints -> Bag Implication wc_impl WantedConstraints wc1) ; WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (WantedConstraints wc { wc_simple = wc_simple wc1 , wc_impl = implics2 }) } ; Bool unif_happened <- TcS Bool resetUnificationFlag ; SDoc -> TcS () csTraceTcS (SDoc -> TcS ()) -> SDoc -> TcS () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "unif_happened" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Bool -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Bool unif_happened -- Note [The Unification Level Flag] in GHC.Tc.Solver.Monad ; Int -> IntWithInf -> Bool -> WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints maybe_simplify_again (Int nInt -> Int -> Int forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a +Int 1) IntWithInf limit Bool unif_happened WantedConstraints wc2 } maybe_simplify_again :: Int -> IntWithInf -> Bool -> WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints maybe_simplify_again :: Int -> IntWithInf -> Bool -> WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints maybe_simplify_again Int n IntWithInf limit Bool unif_happened wc :: WantedConstraints wc@(WC { wc_simple :: WantedConstraints -> Cts wc_simple = Cts simples }) | Int n Int -> IntWithInf -> Bool `intGtLimit` IntWithInf limit = do { -- Add an error (not a warning) if we blow the limit, -- Typically if we blow the limit we are going to report some other error -- (an unsolved constraint), and we don't want that error to suppress -- the iteration limit warning! TcRnMessage -> TcS () addErrTcS (TcRnMessage -> TcS ()) -> TcRnMessage -> TcS () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ Cts -> IntWithInf -> WantedConstraints -> TcRnMessage TcRnSimplifierTooManyIterations Cts simples IntWithInf limit WantedConstraints wc ; WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return WantedConstraints wc } | Bool unif_happened = Int -> IntWithInf -> Bool -> WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints simplify_loop Int n IntWithInf limit Bool True WantedConstraints wc | WantedConstraints -> Bool superClassesMightHelp WantedConstraints wc = -- We still have unsolved goals, and apparently no way to solve them, -- so try expanding superclasses at this level, both Given and Wanted do { [Ct] pending_given <- TcS [Ct] getPendingGivenScs ; let ([Ct] pending_wanted, Cts simples1) = Cts -> ([Ct], Cts) getPendingWantedScs Cts simples ; if [Ct] -> Bool forall a. [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [Ct] pending_given Bool -> Bool -> Bool && [Ct] -> Bool forall a. [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [Ct] pending_wanted then WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return WantedConstraints wc -- After all, superclasses did not help else do { [Ct] new_given <- [Ct] -> TcS [Ct] makeSuperClasses [Ct] pending_given ; [Ct] new_wanted <- [Ct] -> TcS [Ct] makeSuperClasses [Ct] pending_wanted ; [Ct] -> TcS () solveSimpleGivens [Ct] new_given -- Add the new Givens to the inert set ; Int -> IntWithInf -> Bool -> WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints simplify_loop Int n IntWithInf limit (Bool -> Bool not ([Ct] -> Bool forall a. [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [Ct] pending_given)) (WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints) -> WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ WantedConstraints wc { wc_simple = simples1 `unionBags` listToBag new_wanted } } } -- (not (null pending_given)): see Note [Superclass iteration] | Bool otherwise = WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return WantedConstraints wc {- Note [Superclass iteration] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Consider this implication constraint forall a. [W] d: C Int beta forall b. blah where class D a b | a -> b class D a b => C a b We will expand d's superclasses, giving [W] D Int beta, in the hope of geting fundeps to unify beta. Doing so is usually fruitless (no useful fundeps), and if so it seems a pity to waste time iterating the implications (forall b. blah) (If we add new Given superclasses it's a different matter: it's really worth looking at the implications.) Hence the definitely_redo_implications flag to simplify_loop. It's usually True, but False in the case where the only reason to iterate is new Wanted superclasses. In that case we check whether the new Wanteds actually led to any new unifications, and iterate the implications only if so. -} solveNestedImplications :: Bag Implication -> TcS (Bag Implication) -- Precondition: the TcS inerts may contain unsolved simples which have -- to be converted to givens before we go inside a nested implication. solveNestedImplications :: Bag Implication -> TcS (Bag Implication) solveNestedImplications Bag Implication implics | Bag Implication -> Bool forall a. Bag a -> Bool isEmptyBag Bag Implication implics = Bag Implication -> TcS (Bag Implication) forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Bag Implication forall a. Bag a emptyBag) | Bool otherwise = do { String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "solveNestedImplications starting {" SDoc forall doc. IsOutput doc => doc empty ; Bag (Maybe Implication) unsolved_implics <- (Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication)) -> Bag Implication -> TcS (Bag (Maybe Implication)) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> Bag a -> m (Bag b) mapBagM Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) solveImplication Bag Implication implics -- ... and we are back in the original TcS inerts -- Notice that the original includes the _insoluble_simples so it was safe to ignore -- them in the beginning of this function. ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "solveNestedImplications end }" (SDoc -> TcS ()) -> SDoc -> TcS () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "unsolved_implics =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Bag (Maybe Implication) -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Bag (Maybe Implication) unsolved_implics ] ; Bag Implication -> TcS (Bag Implication) forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Bag (Maybe Implication) -> Bag Implication forall a. Bag (Maybe a) -> Bag a catBagMaybes Bag (Maybe Implication) unsolved_implics) } solveImplication :: Implication -- Wanted -> TcS (Maybe Implication) -- Simplified implication (empty or singleton) -- Precondition: The TcS monad contains an empty worklist and given-only inerts -- which after trying to solve this implication we must restore to their original value solveImplication :: Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) solveImplication imp :: Implication imp@(Implic { ic_tclvl :: Implication -> TcLevel ic_tclvl = TcLevel tclvl , ic_binds :: Implication -> EvBindsVar ic_binds = EvBindsVar ev_binds_var , ic_given :: Implication -> [TcTyVar] ic_given = [TcTyVar] given_ids , ic_wanted :: Implication -> WantedConstraints ic_wanted = WantedConstraints wanteds , ic_info :: Implication -> SkolemInfoAnon ic_info = SkolemInfoAnon info , ic_status :: Implication -> ImplicStatus ic_status = ImplicStatus status }) | ImplicStatus -> Bool isSolvedStatus ImplicStatus status = Maybe Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Implication -> Maybe Implication forall a. a -> Maybe a Just Implication imp) -- Do nothing | Bool otherwise -- Even for IC_Insoluble it is worth doing more work -- The insoluble stuff might be in one sub-implication -- and other unsolved goals in another; and we want to -- solve the latter as much as possible = do { InertSet inerts <- TcS InertSet getTcSInerts ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "solveImplication {" (Implication -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Implication imp SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => doc -> doc -> doc $$ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "Inerts" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> InertSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr InertSet inerts) -- commented out; see `where` clause below -- ; when debugIsOn check_tc_level -- Solve the nested constraints ; (HasGivenEqs has_given_eqs, Cts given_insols, WantedConstraints residual_wanted) <- EvBindsVar -> TcLevel -> TcS (HasGivenEqs, Cts, WantedConstraints) -> TcS (HasGivenEqs, Cts, WantedConstraints) forall a. EvBindsVar -> TcLevel -> TcS a -> TcS a nestImplicTcS EvBindsVar ev_binds_var TcLevel tclvl (TcS (HasGivenEqs, Cts, WantedConstraints) -> TcS (HasGivenEqs, Cts, WantedConstraints)) -> TcS (HasGivenEqs, Cts, WantedConstraints) -> TcS (HasGivenEqs, Cts, WantedConstraints) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do { let loc :: CtLoc loc = TcLevel -> SkolemInfoAnon -> TcLclEnv -> CtLoc mkGivenLoc TcLevel tclvl SkolemInfoAnon info (Implication -> TcLclEnv ic_env Implication imp) givens :: [Ct] givens = CtLoc -> [TcTyVar] -> [Ct] mkGivens CtLoc loc [TcTyVar] given_ids ; [Ct] -> TcS () solveSimpleGivens [Ct] givens ; WantedConstraints residual_wanted <- WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints solveWanteds WantedConstraints wanteds ; (HasGivenEqs has_eqs, Cts given_insols) <- TcLevel -> TcS (HasGivenEqs, Cts) getHasGivenEqs TcLevel tclvl -- Call getHasGivenEqs /after/ solveWanteds, because -- solveWanteds can augment the givens, via expandSuperClasses, -- to reveal given superclass equalities ; (HasGivenEqs, Cts, WantedConstraints) -> TcS (HasGivenEqs, Cts, WantedConstraints) forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (HasGivenEqs has_eqs, Cts given_insols, WantedConstraints residual_wanted) } ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "solveImplication 2" (Cts -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Cts given_insols SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => doc -> doc -> doc $$ WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints residual_wanted) ; let final_wanted :: WantedConstraints final_wanted = WantedConstraints residual_wanted WantedConstraints -> Cts -> WantedConstraints `addInsols` Cts given_insols -- Don't lose track of the insoluble givens, -- which signal unreachable code; put them in ic_wanted ; Maybe Implication res_implic <- Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) setImplicationStatus (Implication imp { ic_given_eqs = has_given_eqs , ic_wanted = final_wanted }) ; EvBindMap evbinds <- EvBindsVar -> TcS EvBindMap TcS.getTcEvBindsMap EvBindsVar ev_binds_var ; VarSet tcvs <- EvBindsVar -> TcS VarSet TcS.getTcEvTyCoVars EvBindsVar ev_binds_var ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "solveImplication end }" (SDoc -> TcS ()) -> SDoc -> TcS () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "has_given_eqs =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> HasGivenEqs -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr HasGivenEqs has_given_eqs , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "res_implic =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Maybe Implication -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Maybe Implication res_implic , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "implication evbinds =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Bag EvBind -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr (EvBindMap -> Bag EvBind evBindMapBinds EvBindMap evbinds) , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "implication tvcs =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> VarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr VarSet tcvs ] ; Maybe Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Maybe Implication res_implic } -- TcLevels must be strictly increasing (see (ImplicInv) in -- Note [TcLevel invariants] in GHC.Tc.Utils.TcType), -- and in fact I think they should always increase one level at a time. -- Though sensible, this check causes lots of testsuite failures. It is -- remaining commented out for now. {- check_tc_level = do { cur_lvl <- TcS.getTcLevel ; massertPpr (tclvl == pushTcLevel cur_lvl) (text "Cur lvl =" <+> ppr cur_lvl $$ text "Imp lvl =" <+> ppr tclvl) } -} ---------------------- setImplicationStatus :: Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) -- Finalise the implication returned from solveImplication, -- setting the ic_status field -- Precondition: the ic_status field is not already IC_Solved -- Return Nothing if we can discard the implication altogether setImplicationStatus :: Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) setImplicationStatus implic :: Implication implic@(Implic { ic_status :: Implication -> ImplicStatus ic_status = ImplicStatus status , ic_info :: Implication -> SkolemInfoAnon ic_info = SkolemInfoAnon info , ic_wanted :: Implication -> WantedConstraints ic_wanted = WantedConstraints wc , ic_given :: Implication -> [TcTyVar] ic_given = [TcTyVar] givens }) | Bool -> SDoc -> Bool -> Bool forall a. HasCallStack => Bool -> SDoc -> a -> a assertPpr (Bool -> Bool not (ImplicStatus -> Bool isSolvedStatus ImplicStatus status)) (SkolemInfoAnon -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr SkolemInfoAnon info) (Bool -> Bool) -> Bool -> Bool forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ -- Precondition: we only set the status if it is not already solved Bool -> Bool not (WantedConstraints -> Bool isSolvedWC WantedConstraints pruned_wc) = do { String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "setImplicationStatus(not-all-solved) {" (Implication -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Implication implic) ; Implication implic <- Implication -> TcS Implication neededEvVars Implication implic ; let new_status :: ImplicStatus new_status | WantedConstraints -> Bool insolubleWC WantedConstraints pruned_wc = ImplicStatus IC_Insoluble | Bool otherwise = ImplicStatus IC_Unsolved new_implic :: Implication new_implic = Implication implic { ic_status = new_status , ic_wanted = pruned_wc } ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "setImplicationStatus(not-all-solved) }" (Implication -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Implication new_implic) ; Maybe Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Maybe Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication)) -> Maybe Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ Implication -> Maybe Implication forall a. a -> Maybe a Just Implication new_implic } | Bool otherwise -- Everything is solved -- Set status to IC_Solved, -- and compute the dead givens and outer needs -- See Note [Tracking redundant constraints] = do { String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "setImplicationStatus(all-solved) {" (Implication -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Implication implic) ; implic :: Implication implic@(Implic { ic_need_inner :: Implication -> VarSet ic_need_inner = VarSet need_inner , ic_need_outer :: Implication -> VarSet ic_need_outer = VarSet need_outer }) <- Implication -> TcS Implication neededEvVars Implication implic ; Bool bad_telescope <- Implication -> TcS Bool checkBadTelescope Implication implic ; let warn_givens :: [TcTyVar] warn_givens = SkolemInfoAnon -> VarSet -> [TcTyVar] -> [TcTyVar] findUnnecessaryGivens SkolemInfoAnon info VarSet need_inner [TcTyVar] givens discard_entire_implication :: Bool discard_entire_implication -- Can we discard the entire implication? = [TcTyVar] -> Bool forall a. [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [TcTyVar] warn_givens -- No warning from this implication Bool -> Bool -> Bool && Bool -> Bool not Bool bad_telescope Bool -> Bool -> Bool && WantedConstraints -> Bool isEmptyWC WantedConstraints pruned_wc -- No live children Bool -> Bool -> Bool && VarSet -> Bool isEmptyVarSet VarSet need_outer -- No needed vars to pass up to parent final_status :: ImplicStatus final_status | Bool bad_telescope = ImplicStatus IC_BadTelescope | Bool otherwise = IC_Solved { ics_dead :: [TcTyVar] ics_dead = [TcTyVar] warn_givens } final_implic :: Implication final_implic = Implication implic { ic_status = final_status , ic_wanted = pruned_wc } ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "setImplicationStatus(all-solved) }" (SDoc -> TcS ()) -> SDoc -> TcS () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "discard:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Bool -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Bool discard_entire_implication , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "new_implic:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> Implication -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Implication final_implic ] ; Maybe Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Maybe Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication)) -> Maybe Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ if Bool discard_entire_implication then Maybe Implication forall a. Maybe a Nothing else Implication -> Maybe Implication forall a. a -> Maybe a Just Implication final_implic } where WC { wc_simple :: WantedConstraints -> Cts wc_simple = Cts simples, wc_impl :: WantedConstraints -> Bag Implication wc_impl = Bag Implication implics, wc_errors :: WantedConstraints -> Bag DelayedError wc_errors = Bag DelayedError errs } = WantedConstraints wc pruned_implics :: Bag Implication pruned_implics = (Implication -> Bool) -> Bag Implication -> Bag Implication forall a. (a -> Bool) -> Bag a -> Bag a filterBag Implication -> Bool keep_me Bag Implication implics pruned_wc :: WantedConstraints pruned_wc = WC { wc_simple :: Cts wc_simple = Cts simples , wc_impl :: Bag Implication wc_impl = Bag Implication pruned_implics , wc_errors :: Bag DelayedError wc_errors = Bag DelayedError errs } -- do not prune holes; these should be reported keep_me :: Implication -> Bool keep_me :: Implication -> Bool keep_me Implication ic | IC_Solved { ics_dead :: ImplicStatus -> [TcTyVar] ics_dead = [TcTyVar] dead_givens } <- Implication -> ImplicStatus ic_status Implication ic -- Fully solved , [TcTyVar] -> Bool forall a. [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [TcTyVar] dead_givens -- No redundant givens to report , Bag Implication -> Bool forall a. Bag a -> Bool isEmptyBag (WantedConstraints -> Bag Implication wc_impl (Implication -> WantedConstraints ic_wanted Implication ic)) -- And no children that might have things to report = Bool False -- Tnen we don't need to keep it | Bool otherwise = Bool True -- Otherwise, keep it findUnnecessaryGivens :: SkolemInfoAnon -> VarSet -> [EvVar] -> [EvVar] findUnnecessaryGivens :: SkolemInfoAnon -> VarSet -> [TcTyVar] -> [TcTyVar] findUnnecessaryGivens SkolemInfoAnon info VarSet need_inner [TcTyVar] givens | Bool -> Bool not (SkolemInfoAnon -> Bool warnRedundantGivens SkolemInfoAnon info) -- Don't report redundant constraints at all = [] | Bool -> Bool not ([TcTyVar] -> Bool forall a. [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [TcTyVar] unused_givens) -- Some givens are literally unused = [TcTyVar] unused_givens | Bool otherwise -- All givens are used, but some might = [TcTyVar] redundant_givens -- still be redundant e.g. (Eq a, Ord a) where in_instance_decl :: Bool in_instance_decl = case SkolemInfoAnon info of { InstSkol {} -> Bool True; SkolemInfoAnon _ -> Bool False } -- See Note [Redundant constraints in instance decls] unused_givens :: [TcTyVar] unused_givens = (TcTyVar -> Bool) -> [TcTyVar] -> [TcTyVar] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] filterOut TcTyVar -> Bool is_used [TcTyVar] givens is_used :: TcTyVar -> Bool is_used TcTyVar given = TcTyVar -> Bool is_type_error TcTyVar given Bool -> Bool -> Bool || (TcTyVar given TcTyVar -> VarSet -> Bool `elemVarSet` VarSet need_inner) Bool -> Bool -> Bool || (Bool in_instance_decl Bool -> Bool -> Bool && Type -> Bool is_improving (TcTyVar -> Type idType TcTyVar given)) minimal_givens :: [TcTyVar] minimal_givens = (TcTyVar -> Type) -> [TcTyVar] -> [TcTyVar] forall a. (a -> Type) -> [a] -> [a] mkMinimalBySCs TcTyVar -> Type evVarPred [TcTyVar] givens is_minimal :: TcTyVar -> Bool is_minimal = (TcTyVar -> VarSet -> Bool `elemVarSet` [TcTyVar] -> VarSet mkVarSet [TcTyVar] minimal_givens) redundant_givens :: [TcTyVar] redundant_givens | Bool in_instance_decl = [] | Bool otherwise = (TcTyVar -> Bool) -> [TcTyVar] -> [TcTyVar] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] filterOut TcTyVar -> Bool is_minimal [TcTyVar] givens -- See #15232 is_type_error :: TcTyVar -> Bool is_type_error = Maybe Type -> Bool forall a. Maybe a -> Bool isJust (Maybe Type -> Bool) -> (TcTyVar -> Maybe Type) -> TcTyVar -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . Type -> Maybe Type userTypeError_maybe (Type -> Maybe Type) -> (TcTyVar -> Type) -> TcTyVar -> Maybe Type forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . TcTyVar -> Type idType is_improving :: Type -> Bool is_improving Type pred -- (transSuperClasses p) does not include p = (Type -> Bool) -> [Type] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool any Type -> Bool isImprovementPred (Type pred Type -> [Type] -> [Type] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : Type -> [Type] transSuperClasses Type pred) {- Note [Redundant constraints in instance decls] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Instance declarations are special in two ways: * We don't report unused givens if they can give rise to improvement. Example (#10100): class Add a b ab | a b -> ab, a ab -> b instance Add Zero b b instance Add a b ab => Add (Succ a) b (Succ ab) The context (Add a b ab) for the instance is clearly unused in terms of evidence, since the dictionary has no fields. But it is still needed! With the context, a wanted constraint Add (Succ Zero) beta (Succ Zero) we will reduce to (Add Zero beta Zero), and thence we get beta := Zero. But without the context we won't find beta := Zero. This only matters in instance declarations. * We don't report givens that are a superclass of another given. E.g. class Ord r => UserOfRegs r a where ... instance (Ord r, UserOfRegs r CmmReg) => UserOfRegs r CmmExpr where The (Ord r) is not redundant, even though it is a superclass of (UserOfRegs r CmmReg). See Note [Recursive superclasses] in GHC.Tc.TyCl.Instance. Again this is specific to instance declarations. -} checkBadTelescope :: Implication -> TcS Bool -- True <=> the skolems form a bad telescope -- See Note [Checking telescopes] in GHC.Tc.Types.Constraint checkBadTelescope :: Implication -> TcS Bool checkBadTelescope (Implic { ic_info :: Implication -> SkolemInfoAnon ic_info = SkolemInfoAnon info , ic_skols :: Implication -> [TcTyVar] ic_skols = [TcTyVar] skols }) | SkolemInfoAnon -> Bool checkTelescopeSkol SkolemInfoAnon info = do{ [TcTyVar] skols <- (TcTyVar -> TcS TcTyVar) -> [TcTyVar] -> TcS [TcTyVar] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> [a] -> m [b] mapM TcTyVar -> TcS TcTyVar TcS.zonkTyCoVarKind [TcTyVar] skols ; Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (VarSet -> [TcTyVar] -> Bool go VarSet emptyVarSet ([TcTyVar] -> [TcTyVar] forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [TcTyVar] skols))} | Bool otherwise = Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool False where go :: TyVarSet -- skolems that appear *later* than the current ones -> [TcTyVar] -- ordered skolems, in reverse order -> Bool -- True <=> there is an out-of-order skolem go :: VarSet -> [TcTyVar] -> Bool go VarSet _ [] = Bool False go VarSet later_skols (TcTyVar one_skol : [TcTyVar] earlier_skols) | Type -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfType (TcTyVar -> Type tyVarKind TcTyVar one_skol) VarSet -> VarSet -> Bool `intersectsVarSet` VarSet later_skols = Bool True | Bool otherwise = VarSet -> [TcTyVar] -> Bool go (VarSet later_skols VarSet -> TcTyVar -> VarSet `extendVarSet` TcTyVar one_skol) [TcTyVar] earlier_skols warnRedundantGivens :: SkolemInfoAnon -> Bool warnRedundantGivens :: SkolemInfoAnon -> Bool warnRedundantGivens (SigSkol UserTypeCtxt ctxt Type _ [(Name, TcTyVar)] _) = case UserTypeCtxt ctxt of FunSigCtxt Name _ ReportRedundantConstraints rrc -> ReportRedundantConstraints -> Bool reportRedundantConstraints ReportRedundantConstraints rrc ExprSigCtxt ReportRedundantConstraints rrc -> ReportRedundantConstraints -> Bool reportRedundantConstraints ReportRedundantConstraints rrc UserTypeCtxt _ -> Bool False -- To think about: do we want to report redundant givens for -- pattern synonyms, PatSynSigSkol? c.f #9953, comment:21. warnRedundantGivens (InstSkol {}) = Bool True warnRedundantGivens SkolemInfoAnon _ = Bool False neededEvVars :: Implication -> TcS Implication -- Find all the evidence variables that are "needed", -- and delete dead evidence bindings -- See Note [Tracking redundant constraints] -- See Note [Delete dead Given evidence bindings] -- -- - Start from initial_seeds (from nested implications) -- -- - Add free vars of RHS of all Wanted evidence bindings -- and coercion variables accumulated in tcvs (all Wanted) -- -- - Generate 'needed', the needed set of EvVars, by doing transitive -- closure through Given bindings -- e.g. Needed {a,b} -- Given a = sc_sel a2 -- Then a2 is needed too -- -- - Prune out all Given bindings that are not needed -- -- - From the 'needed' set, delete ev_bndrs, the binders of the -- evidence bindings, to give the final needed variables -- neededEvVars :: Implication -> TcS Implication neededEvVars implic :: Implication implic@(Implic { ic_given :: Implication -> [TcTyVar] ic_given = [TcTyVar] givens , ic_binds :: Implication -> EvBindsVar ic_binds = EvBindsVar ev_binds_var , ic_wanted :: Implication -> WantedConstraints ic_wanted = WC { wc_impl :: WantedConstraints -> Bag Implication wc_impl = Bag Implication implics } , ic_need_inner :: Implication -> VarSet ic_need_inner = VarSet old_needs }) = do { EvBindMap ev_binds <- EvBindsVar -> TcS EvBindMap TcS.getTcEvBindsMap EvBindsVar ev_binds_var ; VarSet tcvs <- EvBindsVar -> TcS VarSet TcS.getTcEvTyCoVars EvBindsVar ev_binds_var ; let seeds1 :: VarSet seeds1 = (Implication -> VarSet -> VarSet) -> VarSet -> Bag Implication -> VarSet forall a b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Bag a -> b forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr Implication -> VarSet -> VarSet add_implic_seeds VarSet old_needs Bag Implication implics seeds2 :: VarSet seeds2 = (EvBind -> VarSet -> VarSet) -> VarSet -> EvBindMap -> VarSet forall a. (EvBind -> a -> a) -> a -> EvBindMap -> a nonDetStrictFoldEvBindMap EvBind -> VarSet -> VarSet add_wanted VarSet seeds1 EvBindMap ev_binds -- It's OK to use a non-deterministic fold here -- because add_wanted is commutative seeds3 :: VarSet seeds3 = VarSet seeds2 VarSet -> VarSet -> VarSet `unionVarSet` VarSet tcvs need_inner :: VarSet need_inner = EvBindMap -> VarSet -> VarSet findNeededEvVars EvBindMap ev_binds VarSet seeds3 live_ev_binds :: EvBindMap live_ev_binds = (EvBind -> Bool) -> EvBindMap -> EvBindMap filterEvBindMap (VarSet -> EvBind -> Bool needed_ev_bind VarSet need_inner) EvBindMap ev_binds need_outer :: VarSet need_outer = VarSet -> EvBindMap -> VarSet varSetMinusEvBindMap VarSet need_inner EvBindMap live_ev_binds VarSet -> [TcTyVar] -> VarSet `delVarSetList` [TcTyVar] givens ; EvBindsVar -> EvBindMap -> TcS () TcS.setTcEvBindsMap EvBindsVar ev_binds_var EvBindMap live_ev_binds -- See Note [Delete dead Given evidence bindings] ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "neededEvVars" (SDoc -> TcS ()) -> SDoc -> TcS () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "old_needs:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> VarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr VarSet old_needs , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "seeds3:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> VarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr VarSet seeds3 , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "tcvs:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> VarSet -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr VarSet tcvs , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "ev_binds:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> EvBindMap -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr EvBindMap ev_binds , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "live_ev_binds:" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> EvBindMap -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr EvBindMap live_ev_binds ] ; Implication -> TcS Implication forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Implication implic { ic_need_inner = need_inner , ic_need_outer = need_outer }) } where add_implic_seeds :: Implication -> VarSet -> VarSet add_implic_seeds (Implic { ic_need_outer :: Implication -> VarSet ic_need_outer = VarSet needs }) VarSet acc = VarSet needs VarSet -> VarSet -> VarSet `unionVarSet` VarSet acc needed_ev_bind :: VarSet -> EvBind -> Bool needed_ev_bind VarSet needed (EvBind { eb_lhs :: EvBind -> TcTyVar eb_lhs = TcTyVar ev_var , eb_is_given :: EvBind -> Bool eb_is_given = Bool is_given }) | Bool is_given = TcTyVar ev_var TcTyVar -> VarSet -> Bool `elemVarSet` VarSet needed | Bool otherwise = Bool True -- Keep all wanted bindings add_wanted :: EvBind -> VarSet -> VarSet add_wanted :: EvBind -> VarSet -> VarSet add_wanted (EvBind { eb_is_given :: EvBind -> Bool eb_is_given = Bool is_given, eb_rhs :: EvBind -> EvTerm eb_rhs = EvTerm rhs }) VarSet needs | Bool is_given = VarSet needs -- Add the rhs vars of the Wanted bindings only | Bool otherwise = EvTerm -> VarSet evVarsOfTerm EvTerm rhs VarSet -> VarSet -> VarSet `unionVarSet` VarSet needs ------------------------------------------------- simplifyDelayedErrors :: Bag DelayedError -> TcS (Bag DelayedError) simplifyDelayedErrors :: Bag DelayedError -> TcS (Bag DelayedError) simplifyDelayedErrors = (DelayedError -> TcS DelayedError) -> Bag DelayedError -> TcS (Bag DelayedError) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> Bag a -> m (Bag b) mapBagM DelayedError -> TcS DelayedError simpl_err where simpl_err :: DelayedError -> TcS DelayedError simpl_err :: DelayedError -> TcS DelayedError simpl_err (DE_Hole Hole hole) = Hole -> DelayedError DE_Hole (Hole -> DelayedError) -> TcS Hole -> TcS DelayedError forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b <$> Hole -> TcS Hole simpl_hole Hole hole simpl_err err :: DelayedError err@(DE_NotConcrete {}) = DelayedError -> TcS DelayedError forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return DelayedError err simpl_hole :: Hole -> TcS Hole -- See Note [Do not simplify ConstraintHoles] simpl_hole :: Hole -> TcS Hole simpl_hole h :: Hole h@(Hole { hole_sort :: Hole -> HoleSort hole_sort = HoleSort ConstraintHole }) = Hole -> TcS Hole forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Hole h -- other wildcards should be simplified for printing -- we must do so here, and not in the error-message generation -- code, because we have all the givens already set up simpl_hole h :: Hole h@(Hole { hole_ty :: Hole -> Type hole_ty = Type ty, hole_loc :: Hole -> CtLoc hole_loc = CtLoc loc }) = do { Type ty' <- CtLoc -> Type -> TcS Type rewriteType CtLoc loc Type ty ; Hole -> TcS Hole forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Hole h { hole_ty = ty' }) } {- Note [Delete dead Given evidence bindings] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ As a result of superclass expansion, we speculatively generate evidence bindings for Givens. E.g. f :: (a ~ b) => a -> b -> Bool f x y = ... We'll have [G] d1 :: (a~b) and we'll speculatively generate the evidence binding [G] d2 :: (a ~# b) = sc_sel d Now d2 is available for solving. But it may not be needed! Usually such dead superclass selections will eventually be dropped as dead code, but: * It won't always be dropped (#13032). In the case of an unlifted-equality superclass like d2 above, we generate case heq_sc d1 of d2 -> ... and we can't (in general) drop that case expression in case d1 is bottom. So it's technically unsound to have added it in the first place. * Simply generating all those extra superclasses can generate lots of code that has to be zonked, only to be discarded later. Better not to generate it in the first place. Moreover, if we simplify this implication more than once (e.g. because we can't solve it completely on the first iteration of simpl_loop), we'll generate all the same bindings AGAIN! Easy solution: take advantage of the work we are doing to track dead (unused) Givens, and use it to prune the Given bindings too. This is all done by neededEvVars. This led to a remarkable 25% overall compiler allocation decrease in test T12227. But we don't get to discard all redundant equality superclasses, alas; see #15205. Note [Do not simplify ConstraintHoles] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Before printing the inferred value for a type hole (a _ wildcard in a partial type signature), we simplify it w.r.t. any Givens. This makes for an easier-to-understand diagnostic for the user. However, we do not wish to do this for extra-constraint holes. Here is the example for why (partial-sigs/should_compile/T12844): bar :: _ => FooData rngs bar = foo data FooData rngs class Foo xs where foo :: (Head xs ~ '(r,r')) => FooData xs type family Head (xs :: [k]) where Head (x ': xs) = x GHC correctly infers that the extra-constraints wildcard on `bar` should be (Head rngs ~ '(r, r'), Foo rngs). It then adds this constraint as a Given on the implication constraint for `bar`. (This implication is emitted by emitResidualConstraints.) The Hole for the _ is stored within the implication's WantedConstraints. When simplifyHoles is called, that constraint is already assumed as a Given. Simplifying with respect to it turns it into ('(r, r') ~ '(r, r'), Foo rngs), which is disastrous. Furthermore, there is no need to simplify here: extra-constraints wildcards are filled in with the output of the solver, in chooseInferredQuantifiers (choose_psig_context), so they are already simplified. (Contrast to normal type holes, which are just bound to a meta-variable.) Avoiding the poor output is simple: just don't simplify extra-constraints wildcards. This is the only reason we need to track ConstraintHole separately from TypeHole in HoleSort. See also Note [Extra-constraint holes in partial type signatures] in GHC.Tc.Gen.HsType. Note [Tracking redundant constraints] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ With Opt_WarnRedundantConstraints, GHC can report which constraints of a type signature (or instance declaration) are redundant, and can be omitted. Here is an overview of how it works. This is all tested in typecheck/should_compile/T20602 (among others). ----- What is a redundant constraint? * The things that can be redundant are precisely the Given constraints of an implication. * A constraint can be redundant in two different ways: a) It is not needed by the Wanted constraints covered by the implication E.g. f :: Eq a => a -> Bool f x = True -- Equality not used b) It is implied by other givens. E.g. f :: (Eq a, Ord a) => blah -- Eq a unnecessary g :: (Eq a, a~b, Eq b) => blah -- Either Eq a or Eq b unnecessary * To find (a) we need to know which evidence bindings are 'wanted'; hence the eb_is_given field on an EvBind. * To find (b), we use mkMinimalBySCs on the Givens to see if any are unnecessary. ----- How tracking works * When two Givens are the same, we drop the evidence for the one that requires more superclass selectors. This is done according to Note [Replacement vs keeping] in GHC.Tc.Solver.Interact. * The ic_need fields of an Implic records in-scope (given) evidence variables bound by the context, that were needed to solve this implication (so far). See the declaration of Implication. * When the constraint solver finishes solving all the wanteds in an implication, it sets its status to IC_Solved - The ics_dead field, of IC_Solved, records the subset of this implication's ic_given that are redundant (not needed). * We compute which evidence variables are needed by an implication in setImplicationStatus. A variable is needed if a) it is free in the RHS of a Wanted EvBind, b) it is free in the RHS of an EvBind whose LHS is needed, or c) it is in the ics_need of a nested implication. * After computing which variables are needed, we then look at the remaining variables for internal redundancies. This is case (b) from above. This is also done in setImplicationStatus. Note that we only look for case (b) if case (a) shows up empty, as exemplified below. * We need to be careful not to discard an implication prematurely, even one that is fully solved, because we might thereby forget which variables it needs, and hence wrongly report a constraint as redundant. But we can discard it once its free vars have been incorporated into its parent; or if it simply has no free vars. This careful discarding is also handled in setImplicationStatus. * Examples: f, g, h :: (Eq a, Ord a) => a -> Bool f x = x == x g x = x > x h x = x == x && x > x All three will discover that they have two [G] Eq a constraints: one as given and one extracted from the Ord a constraint. They will both discard the latter, as noted above and in Note [Replacement vs keeping] in GHC.Tc.Solver.Interact. The body of f uses the [G] Eq a, but not the [G] Ord a. It will report a redundant Ord a using the logic for case (a). The body of g uses the [G] Ord a, but not the [G] Eq a. It will report a redundant Eq a using the logic for case (a). The body of h uses both [G] Ord a and [G] Eq a. Case (a) will thus come up with nothing redundant. But then, the case (b) check will discover that Eq a is redundant and report this. If we did case (b) even when case (a) reports something, then we would report both constraints as redundant for f, which is terrible. ----- Reporting redundant constraints * GHC.Tc.Errors does the actual warning, in warnRedundantConstraints. * We don't report redundant givens for *every* implication; only for those which reply True to GHC.Tc.Solver.warnRedundantGivens: - For example, in a class declaration, the default method *can* use the class constraint, but it certainly doesn't *have* to, and we don't want to report an error there. - More subtly, in a function definition f :: (Ord a, Ord a, Ix a) => a -> a f x = rhs we do an ambiguity check on the type (which would find that one of the Ord a constraints was redundant), and then we check that the definition has that type (which might find that both are redundant). We don't want to report the same error twice, so we disable it for the ambiguity check. Hence using two different FunSigCtxts, one with the warn-redundant field set True, and the other set False in - GHC.Tc.Gen.Bind.tcSpecPrag - GHC.Tc.Gen.Bind.tcTySig This decision is taken in setImplicationStatus, rather than GHC.Tc.Errors so that we can discard implication constraints that we don't need. So ics_dead consists only of the *reportable* redundant givens. ----- Shortcomings Consider j :: (Eq a, a ~ b) => a -> Bool j x = x == x k :: (Eq a, b ~ a) => a -> Bool k x = x == x Currently (Nov 2021), j issues no warning, while k says that b ~ a is redundant. This is because j uses the a ~ b constraint to rewrite everything to be in terms of b, while k does none of that. This is ridiculous, but I (Richard E) don't see a good fix. -} -- | Like 'defaultTyVar', but in the TcS monad. defaultTyVarTcS :: TcTyVar -> TcS Bool defaultTyVarTcS :: TcTyVar -> TcS Bool defaultTyVarTcS TcTyVar the_tv | TcTyVar -> Bool isTyVarTyVar TcTyVar the_tv -- TyVarTvs should only be unified with a tyvar -- never with a type; c.f. GHC.Tc.Utils.TcMType.defaultTyVar -- and Note [Inferring kinds for type declarations] in GHC.Tc.TyCl = Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool False | TcTyVar -> Bool isRuntimeRepVar TcTyVar the_tv = do { String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "defaultTyVarTcS RuntimeRep" (TcTyVar -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr TcTyVar the_tv) ; TcTyVar -> Type -> TcS () unifyTyVar TcTyVar the_tv Type liftedRepTy ; Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool True } | TcTyVar -> Bool isLevityVar TcTyVar the_tv = do { String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "defaultTyVarTcS Levity" (TcTyVar -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr TcTyVar the_tv) ; TcTyVar -> Type -> TcS () unifyTyVar TcTyVar the_tv Type liftedDataConTy ; Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool True } | TcTyVar -> Bool isMultiplicityVar TcTyVar the_tv = do { String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "defaultTyVarTcS Multiplicity" (TcTyVar -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr TcTyVar the_tv) ; TcTyVar -> Type -> TcS () unifyTyVar TcTyVar the_tv Type ManyTy ; Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool True } | Bool otherwise = Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool False -- the common case approximateWC :: Bool -> WantedConstraints -> Cts -- Second return value is the depleted wc -- Third return value is YesFDsCombined <=> multiple constraints for the same fundep floated -- Postcondition: Wanted Cts -- See Note [ApproximateWC] -- See Note [floatKindEqualities vs approximateWC] approximateWC :: Bool -> WantedConstraints -> Cts approximateWC Bool float_past_equalities WantedConstraints wc = VarSet -> WantedConstraints -> Cts float_wc VarSet emptyVarSet WantedConstraints wc where float_wc :: TcTyCoVarSet -> WantedConstraints -> Cts float_wc :: VarSet -> WantedConstraints -> Cts float_wc VarSet trapping_tvs (WC { wc_simple :: WantedConstraints -> Cts wc_simple = Cts simples, wc_impl :: WantedConstraints -> Bag Implication wc_impl = Bag Implication implics }) = (Ct -> Bool) -> Cts -> Cts forall a. (a -> Bool) -> Bag a -> Bag a filterBag (VarSet -> Ct -> Bool is_floatable VarSet trapping_tvs) Cts simples Cts -> Cts -> Cts forall a. Bag a -> Bag a -> Bag a `unionBags` (Implication -> Cts) -> Bag Implication -> Cts forall a b. (a -> Bag b) -> Bag a -> Bag b concatMapBag (VarSet -> Implication -> Cts float_implic VarSet trapping_tvs) Bag Implication implics float_implic :: TcTyCoVarSet -> Implication -> Cts float_implic :: VarSet -> Implication -> Cts float_implic VarSet trapping_tvs Implication imp | Bool float_past_equalities Bool -> Bool -> Bool || Implication -> HasGivenEqs ic_given_eqs Implication imp HasGivenEqs -> HasGivenEqs -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool /= HasGivenEqs MaybeGivenEqs = VarSet -> WantedConstraints -> Cts float_wc VarSet new_trapping_tvs (Implication -> WantedConstraints ic_wanted Implication imp) | Bool otherwise -- Take care with equalities = Cts emptyCts -- See (1) under Note [ApproximateWC] where new_trapping_tvs :: VarSet new_trapping_tvs = VarSet trapping_tvs VarSet -> [TcTyVar] -> VarSet `extendVarSetList` Implication -> [TcTyVar] ic_skols Implication imp is_floatable :: VarSet -> Ct -> Bool is_floatable VarSet skol_tvs Ct ct | Ct -> Bool isGivenCt Ct ct = Bool False | Ct -> Bool insolubleEqCt Ct ct = Bool False | Bool otherwise = Ct -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfCt Ct ct VarSet -> VarSet -> Bool `disjointVarSet` VarSet skol_tvs {- Note [ApproximateWC] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ approximateWC takes a constraint, typically arising from the RHS of a let-binding whose type we are *inferring*, and extracts from it some *simple* constraints that we might plausibly abstract over. Of course the top-level simple constraints are plausible, but we also float constraints out from inside, if they are not captured by skolems. The same function is used when doing type-class defaulting (see the call to applyDefaultingRules) to extract constraints that might be defaulted. There is one caveat: 1. When inferring most-general types (in simplifyInfer), we do *not* float anything out if the implication binds equality constraints, because that defeats the OutsideIn story. Consider data T a where TInt :: T Int MkT :: T a f TInt = 3::Int We get the implication (a ~ Int => res ~ Int), where so far we've decided f :: T a -> res We don't want to float (res~Int) out because then we'll infer f :: T a -> Int which is only on of the possible types. (GHC 7.6 accidentally *did* float out of such implications, which meant it would happily infer non-principal types.) HOWEVER (#12797) in findDefaultableGroups we are not worried about the most-general type; and we /do/ want to float out of equalities. Hence the boolean flag to approximateWC. ------ Historical note ----------- There used to be a second caveat, driven by #8155 2. We do not float out an inner constraint that shares a type variable (transitively) with one that is trapped by a skolem. Eg forall a. F a ~ beta, Integral beta We don't want to float out (Integral beta). Doing so would be bad when defaulting, because then we'll default beta:=Integer, and that makes the error message much worse; we'd get Can't solve F a ~ Integer rather than Can't solve Integral (F a) Moreover, floating out these "contaminated" constraints doesn't help when generalising either. If we generalise over (Integral b), we still can't solve the retained implication (forall a. F a ~ b). Indeed, arguably that too would be a harder error to understand. But this transitive closure stuff gives rise to a complex rule for when defaulting actually happens, and one that was never documented. Moreover (#12923), the more complex rule is sometimes NOT what you want. So I simply removed the extra code to implement the contamination stuff. There was zero effect on the testsuite (not even #8155). ------ End of historical note ----------- Note [DefaultTyVar] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ defaultTyVar is used on any un-instantiated meta type variables to default any RuntimeRep variables to LiftedRep. This is important to ensure that instance declarations match. For example consider instance Show (a->b) foo x = show (\_ -> True) Then we'll get a constraint (Show (p ->q)) where p has kind (TYPE r), and that won't match the typeKind (*) in the instance decl. See tests tc217 and tc175. We look only at touchable type variables. No further constraints are going to affect these type variables, so it's time to do it by hand. However we aren't ready to default them fully to () or whatever, because the type-class defaulting rules have yet to run. An alternate implementation would be to emit a Wanted constraint setting the RuntimeRep variable to LiftedRep, but this seems unnecessarily indirect. Note [Promote _and_ default when inferring] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When we are inferring a type, we simplify the constraint, and then use approximateWC to produce a list of candidate constraints. Then we MUST a) Promote any meta-tyvars that have been floated out by approximateWC, to restore invariant (WantedInv) described in Note [TcLevel invariants] in GHC.Tc.Utils.TcType. b) Default the kind of any meta-tyvars that are not mentioned in in the environment. To see (b), suppose the constraint is (C ((a :: OpenKind) -> Int)), and we have an instance (C ((x:*) -> Int)). The instance doesn't match -- but it should! If we don't solve the constraint, we'll stupidly quantify over (C (a->Int)) and, worse, in doing so skolemiseQuantifiedTyVar will quantify over (b:*) instead of (a:OpenKind), which can lead to disaster; see #7332. #7641 is a simpler example. Note [Promoting unification variables] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When we float an equality out of an implication we must "promote" free unification variables of the equality, in order to maintain Invariant (WantedInv) from Note [TcLevel invariants] in GHC.Tc.Types.TcType. This is absolutely necessary. Consider the following example. We start with two implications and a class with a functional dependency. class C x y | x -> y instance C [a] [a] (I1) [untch=beta]forall b. 0 => F Int ~ [beta] (I2) [untch=beta]forall c. 0 => F Int ~ [[alpha]] /\ C beta [c] We float (F Int ~ [beta]) out of I1, and we float (F Int ~ [[alpha]]) out of I2. They may react to yield that (beta := [alpha]) which can then be pushed inwards the leftover of I2 to get (C [alpha] [a]) which, using the FunDep, will mean that (alpha := a). In the end we will have the skolem 'b' escaping in the untouchable beta! Concrete example is in indexed_types/should_fail/ExtraTcsUntch.hs: class C x y | x -> y where op :: x -> y -> () instance C [a] [a] type family F a :: * h :: F Int -> () h = undefined data TEx where TEx :: a -> TEx f (x::beta) = let g1 :: forall b. b -> () g1 _ = h [x] g2 z = case z of TEx y -> (h [[undefined]], op x [y]) in (g1 '3', g2 undefined) ********************************************************************************* * * * Defaulting and disambiguation * * * ********************************************************************************* -} applyDefaultingRules :: WantedConstraints -> TcS Bool -- True <=> I did some defaulting, by unifying a meta-tyvar -- Input WantedConstraints are not necessarily zonked applyDefaultingRules :: WantedConstraints -> TcS Bool applyDefaultingRules WantedConstraints wanteds | WantedConstraints -> Bool isEmptyWC WantedConstraints wanteds = Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool False | Bool otherwise = do { info :: ([Type], (Bool, Bool)) info@([Type] default_tys, (Bool, Bool) _) <- TcS ([Type], (Bool, Bool)) getDefaultInfo ; WantedConstraints wanteds <- WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints TcS.zonkWC WantedConstraints wanteds ; TcGblEnv tcg_env <- TcS TcGblEnv TcS.getGblEnv ; let plugins :: [FillDefaulting] plugins = TcGblEnv -> [FillDefaulting] tcg_defaulting_plugins TcGblEnv tcg_env ; [Bool] plugin_defaulted <- if [FillDefaulting] -> Bool forall a. [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [FillDefaulting] plugins then [Bool] -> TcS [Bool] forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return [] else do { ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "defaultingPlugins {" (WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints wanteds) ; [Bool] defaultedGroups <- (FillDefaulting -> TcS Bool) -> [FillDefaulting] -> TcS [Bool] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> [a] -> m [b] mapM (WantedConstraints -> FillDefaulting -> TcS Bool forall {t}. t -> (t -> TcPluginM [DefaultingProposal]) -> TcS Bool run_defaulting_plugin WantedConstraints wanteds) [FillDefaulting] plugins ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "defaultingPlugins }" ([Bool] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Bool] defaultedGroups) ; [Bool] -> TcS [Bool] forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return [Bool] defaultedGroups } ; let groups :: [(TcTyVar, [Ct])] groups = ([Type], (Bool, Bool)) -> WantedConstraints -> [(TcTyVar, [Ct])] findDefaultableGroups ([Type], (Bool, Bool)) info WantedConstraints wanteds ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "applyDefaultingRules {" (SDoc -> TcS ()) -> SDoc -> TcS () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "wanteds =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> WantedConstraints -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr WantedConstraints wanteds , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "groups =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> [(TcTyVar, [Ct])] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [(TcTyVar, [Ct])] groups , String -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => String -> doc text String "info =" SDoc -> SDoc -> SDoc forall doc. IsLine doc => doc -> doc -> doc <+> ([Type], (Bool, Bool)) -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr ([Type], (Bool, Bool)) info ] ; [Bool] something_happeneds <- ((TcTyVar, [Ct]) -> TcS Bool) -> [(TcTyVar, [Ct])] -> TcS [Bool] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a b. (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => (a -> m b) -> [a] -> m [b] mapM ([Type] -> (TcTyVar, [Ct]) -> TcS Bool disambigGroup [Type] default_tys) [(TcTyVar, [Ct])] groups ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "applyDefaultingRules }" ([Bool] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Bool] something_happeneds) ; Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Bool -> TcS Bool) -> Bool -> TcS Bool forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [Bool] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *). Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool or [Bool] something_happeneds Bool -> Bool -> Bool || [Bool] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *). Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool or [Bool] plugin_defaulted } where run_defaulting_plugin :: t -> (t -> TcPluginM [DefaultingProposal]) -> TcS Bool run_defaulting_plugin t wanteds t -> TcPluginM [DefaultingProposal] p = do { [DefaultingProposal] groups <- TcPluginM [DefaultingProposal] -> TcS [DefaultingProposal] forall a. TcPluginM a -> TcS a runTcPluginTcS (t -> TcPluginM [DefaultingProposal] p t wanteds) ; [DefaultingProposal] defaultedGroups <- (DefaultingProposal -> TcS Bool) -> [DefaultingProposal] -> TcS [DefaultingProposal] forall (m :: * -> *) a. Applicative m => (a -> m Bool) -> [a] -> m [a] filterM (\DefaultingProposal g -> [Type] -> (TcTyVar, [Ct]) -> TcS Bool disambigGroup (DefaultingProposal -> [Type] deProposalCandidates DefaultingProposal g) (DefaultingProposal -> TcTyVar deProposalTyVar DefaultingProposal g, DefaultingProposal -> [Ct] deProposalCts DefaultingProposal g)) [DefaultingProposal] groups ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "defaultingPlugin " (SDoc -> TcS ()) -> SDoc -> TcS () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [DefaultingProposal] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [DefaultingProposal] defaultedGroups ; case [DefaultingProposal] defaultedGroups of [] -> Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool False [DefaultingProposal] _ -> Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool True } findDefaultableGroups :: ( [Type] , (Bool,Bool) ) -- (Overloaded strings, extended default rules) -> WantedConstraints -- Unsolved -> [(TyVar, [Ct])] findDefaultableGroups :: ([Type], (Bool, Bool)) -> WantedConstraints -> [(TcTyVar, [Ct])] findDefaultableGroups ([Type] default_tys, (Bool ovl_strings, Bool extended_defaults)) WantedConstraints wanteds | [Type] -> Bool forall a. [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [Type] default_tys = [] | Bool otherwise = [ (TcTyVar tv, ((Ct, Class, TcTyVar) -> Ct) -> [(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] -> [Ct] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) -> Ct forall a b c. (a, b, c) -> a fstOf3 [(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] group) | group' :: NonEmpty (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) group'@((Ct _,Class _,TcTyVar tv) :| [(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] _) <- [NonEmpty (Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] unary_groups , let group :: [(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] group = NonEmpty (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) -> [(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] forall a. NonEmpty a -> [a] forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> [a] toList NonEmpty (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) group' , TcTyVar -> Bool defaultable_tyvar TcTyVar tv , [Class] -> Bool defaultable_classes (((Ct, Class, TcTyVar) -> Class) -> [(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] -> [Class] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) -> Class forall a b c. (a, b, c) -> b sndOf3 [(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] group) ] where simples :: Cts simples = Bool -> WantedConstraints -> Cts approximateWC Bool True WantedConstraints wanteds ([(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] unaries, [Ct] non_unaries) = (Ct -> Either (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) Ct) -> [Ct] -> ([(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)], [Ct]) forall a b c. (a -> Either b c) -> [a] -> ([b], [c]) partitionWith Ct -> Either (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) Ct find_unary (Cts -> [Ct] forall a. Bag a -> [a] bagToList Cts simples) unary_groups :: [NonEmpty (Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] unary_groups = ((Ct, Class, TcTyVar) -> (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) -> Ordering) -> [(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] -> [NonEmpty (Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] forall a. (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> [NonEmpty a] equivClasses (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) -> (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) -> Ordering forall {a} {a} {b} {a} {b}. Ord a => (a, b, a) -> (a, b, a) -> Ordering cmp_tv [(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] unaries unary_groups :: [NonEmpty (Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] -- (C tv) constraints unaries :: [(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] -- (C tv) constraints non_unaries :: [Ct] -- and *other* constraints -- Finds unary type-class constraints -- But take account of polykinded classes like Typeable, -- which may look like (Typeable * (a:*)) (#8931) find_unary :: Ct -> Either (Ct, Class, TyVar) Ct find_unary :: Ct -> Either (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) Ct find_unary Ct cc | Just (Class cls,[Type] tys) <- Type -> Maybe (Class, [Type]) getClassPredTys_maybe (Ct -> Type ctPred Ct cc) , [Type ty] <- TyCon -> [Type] -> [Type] filterOutInvisibleTypes (Class -> TyCon classTyCon Class cls) [Type] tys -- Ignore invisible arguments for this purpose , Just TcTyVar tv <- Type -> Maybe TcTyVar getTyVar_maybe Type ty , TcTyVar -> Bool isMetaTyVar TcTyVar tv -- We might have runtime-skolems in GHCi, and -- we definitely don't want to try to assign to those! = (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) -> Either (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) Ct forall a b. a -> Either a b Left (Ct cc, Class cls, TcTyVar tv) find_unary Ct cc = Ct -> Either (Ct, Class, TcTyVar) Ct forall a b. b -> Either a b Right Ct cc -- Non unary or non dictionary bad_tvs :: TcTyCoVarSet -- TyVars mentioned by non-unaries bad_tvs :: VarSet bad_tvs = (Ct -> VarSet) -> [Ct] -> VarSet forall a. (a -> VarSet) -> [a] -> VarSet mapUnionVarSet Ct -> VarSet tyCoVarsOfCt [Ct] non_unaries cmp_tv :: (a, b, a) -> (a, b, a) -> Ordering cmp_tv (a _,b _,a tv1) (a _,b _,a tv2) = a tv1 a -> a -> Ordering forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Ordering `compare` a tv2 defaultable_tyvar :: TcTyVar -> Bool defaultable_tyvar :: TcTyVar -> Bool defaultable_tyvar TcTyVar tv = let b1 :: Bool b1 = TcTyVar -> Bool isTyConableTyVar TcTyVar tv -- Note [Avoiding spurious errors] b2 :: Bool b2 = Bool -> Bool not (TcTyVar tv TcTyVar -> VarSet -> Bool `elemVarSet` VarSet bad_tvs) in Bool b1 Bool -> Bool -> Bool && (Bool b2 Bool -> Bool -> Bool || Bool extended_defaults) -- Note [Multi-parameter defaults] defaultable_classes :: [Class] -> Bool defaultable_classes :: [Class] -> Bool defaultable_classes [Class] clss | Bool extended_defaults = (Class -> Bool) -> [Class] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool any (Bool -> Class -> Bool isInteractiveClass Bool ovl_strings) [Class] clss | Bool otherwise = (Class -> Bool) -> [Class] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool all Class -> Bool is_std_class [Class] clss Bool -> Bool -> Bool && ((Class -> Bool) -> [Class] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool any (Bool -> Class -> Bool isNumClass Bool ovl_strings) [Class] clss) -- is_std_class adds IsString to the standard numeric classes, -- when -XOverloadedStrings is enabled is_std_class :: Class -> Bool is_std_class Class cls = Class -> Bool isStandardClass Class cls Bool -> Bool -> Bool || (Bool ovl_strings Bool -> Bool -> Bool && (Class cls Class -> Unique -> Bool forall a. Uniquable a => a -> Unique -> Bool `hasKey` Unique isStringClassKey)) ------------------------------ disambigGroup :: [Type] -- The default types -> (TcTyVar, [Ct]) -- All constraints sharing same type variable -> TcS Bool -- True <=> something happened, reflected in ty_binds disambigGroup :: [Type] -> (TcTyVar, [Ct]) -> TcS Bool disambigGroup [] (TcTyVar, [Ct]) _ = Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool False disambigGroup (Type default_ty:[Type] default_tys) group :: (TcTyVar, [Ct]) group@(TcTyVar the_tv, [Ct] wanteds) = do { String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "disambigGroup {" ([SDoc] -> SDoc forall doc. IsDoc doc => [doc] -> doc vcat [ Type -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Type default_ty, TcTyVar -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr TcTyVar the_tv, [Ct] -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr [Ct] wanteds ]) ; EvBindsVar fake_ev_binds_var <- TcS EvBindsVar TcS.newTcEvBinds ; TcLevel tclvl <- TcS TcLevel TcS.getTcLevel ; Bool success <- EvBindsVar -> TcLevel -> TcS Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. EvBindsVar -> TcLevel -> TcS a -> TcS a nestImplicTcS EvBindsVar fake_ev_binds_var (TcLevel -> TcLevel pushTcLevel TcLevel tclvl) TcS Bool try_group ; if Bool success then -- Success: record the type variable binding, and return do { TcTyVar -> Type -> TcS () unifyTyVar TcTyVar the_tv Type default_ty ; TcM () -> TcS () forall a. TcM a -> TcS a wrapWarnTcS (TcM () -> TcS ()) -> TcM () -> TcS () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ TcTyVar -> [Ct] -> Type -> TcM () warnDefaulting TcTyVar the_tv [Ct] wanteds Type default_ty ; String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "disambigGroup succeeded }" (Type -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Type default_ty) ; Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool True } else -- Failure: try with the next type do { String -> SDoc -> TcS () traceTcS String "disambigGroup failed, will try other default types }" (Type -> SDoc forall a. Outputable a => a -> SDoc ppr Type default_ty) ; [Type] -> (TcTyVar, [Ct]) -> TcS Bool disambigGroup [Type] default_tys (TcTyVar, [Ct]) group } } where try_group :: TcS Bool try_group | Just Subst subst <- Maybe Subst mb_subst = do { TcLclEnv lcl_env <- TcS TcLclEnv TcS.getLclEnv ; TcLevel tc_lvl <- TcS TcLevel TcS.getTcLevel ; let loc :: CtLoc loc = TcLevel -> SkolemInfoAnon -> TcLclEnv -> CtLoc mkGivenLoc TcLevel tc_lvl (SkolemInfo -> SkolemInfoAnon getSkolemInfo SkolemInfo HasCallStack => SkolemInfo unkSkol) TcLclEnv lcl_env -- Equality constraints are possible due to type defaulting plugins ; [CtEvidence] wanted_evs <- [TcS CtEvidence] -> TcS [CtEvidence] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a. (Traversable t, Monad m) => t (m a) -> m (t a) forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => [m a] -> m [a] sequence [ CtLoc -> RewriterSet -> Type -> TcS CtEvidence newWantedNC CtLoc loc RewriterSet rewriters Type pred' | Ct wanted <- [Ct] wanteds , CtWanted { ctev_pred :: CtEvidence -> Type ctev_pred = Type pred , ctev_rewriters :: CtEvidence -> RewriterSet ctev_rewriters = RewriterSet rewriters } <- CtEvidence -> [CtEvidence] forall a. a -> [a] forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (Ct -> CtEvidence ctEvidence Ct wanted) , let pred' :: Type pred' = (() :: Constraint) => Subst -> Type -> Type Subst -> Type -> Type substTy Subst subst Type pred ] ; (WantedConstraints -> Bool) -> TcS WantedConstraints -> TcS Bool forall a b. (a -> b) -> TcS a -> TcS b forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b fmap WantedConstraints -> Bool isEmptyWC (TcS WantedConstraints -> TcS Bool) -> TcS WantedConstraints -> TcS Bool forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ Cts -> TcS WantedConstraints solveSimpleWanteds (Cts -> TcS WantedConstraints) -> Cts -> TcS WantedConstraints forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [Ct] -> Cts forall a. [a] -> Bag a listToBag ([Ct] -> Cts) -> [Ct] -> Cts forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ (CtEvidence -> Ct) -> [CtEvidence] -> [Ct] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map CtEvidence -> Ct mkNonCanonical [CtEvidence] wanted_evs } | Bool otherwise = Bool -> TcS Bool forall a. a -> TcS a forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return Bool False the_ty :: Type the_ty = TcTyVar -> Type mkTyVarTy TcTyVar the_tv mb_subst :: Maybe Subst mb_subst = Type -> Type -> Maybe Subst tcMatchTyKi Type the_ty Type default_ty -- Make sure the kinds match too; hence this call to tcMatchTyKi -- E.g. suppose the only constraint was (Typeable k (a::k)) -- With the addition of polykinded defaulting we also want to reject -- ill-kinded defaulting attempts like (Eq []) or (Foldable Int) here. -- In interactive mode, or with -XExtendedDefaultRules, -- we default Show a to Show () to avoid gratuitous errors on "show []" isInteractiveClass :: Bool -- -XOverloadedStrings? -> Class -> Bool isInteractiveClass :: Bool -> Class -> Bool isInteractiveClass Bool ovl_strings Class cls = Bool -> Class -> Bool isNumClass Bool ovl_strings Class cls Bool -> Bool -> Bool || (Class -> Unique classKey Class cls Unique -> [Unique] -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. (Foldable t, Eq a) => a -> t a -> Bool `elem` [Unique] interactiveClassKeys) -- isNumClass adds IsString to the standard numeric classes, -- when -XOverloadedStrings is enabled isNumClass :: Bool -- -XOverloadedStrings? -> Class -> Bool isNumClass :: Bool -> Class -> Bool isNumClass Bool ovl_strings Class cls = Class -> Bool isNumericClass Class cls Bool -> Bool -> Bool || (Bool ovl_strings Bool -> Bool -> Bool && (Class cls Class -> Unique -> Bool forall a. Uniquable a => a -> Unique -> Bool `hasKey` Unique isStringClassKey)) {- Note [Avoiding spurious errors] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When doing the unification for defaulting, we check for skolem type variables, and simply don't default them. For example: f = (*) -- Monomorphic g :: Num a => a -> a g x = f x x Here, we get a complaint when checking the type signature for g, that g isn't polymorphic enough; but then we get another one when dealing with the (Num a) context arising from f's definition; we try to unify a with Int (to default it), but find that it's already been unified with the rigid variable from g's type sig. Note [Multi-parameter defaults] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ With -XExtendedDefaultRules, we default only based on single-variable constraints, but do not exclude from defaulting any type variables which also appear in multi-variable constraints. This means that the following will default properly: default (Integer, Double) class A b (c :: Symbol) where a :: b -> Proxy c instance A Integer c where a _ = Proxy main = print (a 5 :: Proxy "5") Note that if we change the above instance ("instance A Integer") to "instance A Double", we get an error: No instance for (A Integer "5") This is because the first defaulted type (Integer) has successfully satisfied its single-parameter constraints (in this case Num). -}